Education Theories Dissertation

Overall Customer Satisfaction in Carrefour hypermarket in relation to product assortment, variety, price and promotion.
Based in Dubai, U.A.E,

Chapter 1
Introduction and background of carrefour hypermarket,
Statement of problem,
Research background,
Purpose of this study,
Research objectives:
• To identify strategies to enhance the overall customer satisfaction
• To compare customer satisfaction of Carrefour against Lulu hypermarket
• To evaluate the impact of product variety,price, assortments and promotion on customer satisfaction.
• To provide suggestions and recommendations to enhance and improve customer satisfaction,

Importance of this research,

Chapter 2
Literature review and explain what is it, literature review,
Theories related to topic,
Case study related to topic,

Chapter 3
Research method,
Research approach,
Research plan,
Choice of data,
Population of interest eg: age, culture,

Chapter 4
Graph with notes,

Chapter 5
Point of view,
How to solve thing or better way to solve things,
Giving recommendations and suggestions to improve,
Reference should contain index citations with 4 books, 3 journals and 10-15 websites per chapter,

I will attach some files for the writers referencing. I will also attach a file in which I have done research on the same topic but is plagiarism with incomplete content and theories missing, if writer uses my content it should be rewritten (words should be changed) and has no reference. Will upload a sample dissertation.
Thank you

Overall Customer Satisfaction on Carrefour in relation to product assortment, variety and promotion
Chapter 1
Customer satisfaction is the key of differentiation in a competitive market place. Business those succed in a competitive market can be able to survive in the long run with advanced customer satisfactory level. Price, Promotion, Place and Product everything a company designs beauitifully to attract the customers and the aim works out behind this is just to gain the satisfaction of customers and consumers. Every customer look out for a good price, promotion and good customer care. The only way to attract and keep customers loyal to the company is to presuade them so they are loyal and keep coming back for eg; weekly promotion, bundle offers can increase sale and also keep customer satisfaction.
Background of Carrefour
Carrefour is a multinational retailer headquartered in France. It is the largest hypermarket chain in the world and is the 4th largest in the world. The major countries of its operation are Europe, Brazil, China, UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. The company started its operations in 1958 on the first day of the year. It converted to a chain of stores soon after its first outlet. Georges Plassat is the chairman and CEO of the company.
The group of Carrefour was the first in itself to open a hypermarket in Europe. The first supermarket was opened in France in 1968. In 1976, the company launched a private product line of 50 food stuffs including milk, biscuits and pasta. Carrefour followed different slogans all over the years from its foundation. The slogans have been different from France in other countries.

The head office of this company is located in France, but it operates in some of the other countries as well like Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Belgium and Brazil, China, Egypt, Georgia, India, Iran, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Macedonia, Pakistan, Portugal, Taiwan, Turkey, UAE and United Kingdom. Carrefour sold all the 16 stores in Korea in order to exit the country. Even the Czech stores were sold in the same year. In the year 2010, the company took a strong decision to leave some of the countries like Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. But later on the operations in Malaysia and Singapore were continued. The company is also a popular chain in America. There are around 3 pes of retail distribution of the company. Hypermarkets, supermarkets and hard discounters are the distribution units of the company.
The brands popular in hypermarkets are Atacadao, Carrefour and Hyper star. The supermarket brands of the company include Carrefour Bairro, Globi, GS, Gima, Carrefour Mini, etc. Hard discount stores include Dia, ED and Minipreco.

Carrefour faced many controversies till now. One of them was in the year 2007 when around 30 employees were taken to the hospital as they got affected by CO2. It was later found that the basement of one of the malls had insufficient ventilation. The company was even accused of false advertising.
The company faced a boycott of supplies in China as well. As a result, the Chinese search engines were stopped to access the Carrefour website in China. The government stated that there may be some illegal content on the website, so it should not be displayed to the Chinese public. The retail giant then sold its 8 stores in Chile to the Walmart Chile in the year 2004. The company also sold the 11 stores in the Czech Republic to Tesco. Later the company closed stores in Hongkong in the year 2000. Carrefour then sold its stores in many countries like Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Russia, South Korea, Switzerland, UK and USA. The profit incurred by the company as of 2012 was 1.233 billion European pounds. Carrefour holds a total of 361 billion pounds equi in the market.
A franchise agreement with one of the world’s largest retail chains, Carrefour, allowed Majid Al Futtaim Retail to competitively introduce the first hypermarket model to the region in 1995, providing shoppers with real variety and value.
Today, Majid Al Futtaim owns 100% of the Carrefour franchise in 38 markets across the Middle East, Africa and Asia which includes in UAE alone 21 hypermarkets followed by 31 supermarket.
Founded in France, Carrefour is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world, and one of the popular hypermarkets in the region.
The brand ensures customer satisfaction and convenience while offering unbeatable value for money with a vast array of more than 100,000 products from home electronics and clothing, to fresh fruits from around the world and locally produced items. The Carrefour hypermarkets are the industry leaders in product selection and price guarantee, while the supermarkets are smaller in scale but still offer a great variety of products that cater to the everyday needs of the surrounding community,
Over the last 20 years, this brand has grown from strength to strength in the region, and at Majid Al Futtaim we are committed to growing it even further.
Statement of Problem
In todays present modern business market techniques business tends to move from traditional marketing method to modern relationship marketing methods. Throughout this process and strategy different components have different impacts on consumer’s satisfied. In addition to this relationship marketing and other concepts customer satisfied strategy and customer satisfied satisfaction also emerged. There are many theories and literatures that discuss about the importance of customer satisfied and how it can be implemented in a business and how to achieve a positive effect from these strategies. In this research the main purpose is to learn which factors have an impact on customer satisfaction of Carrefour. This thesis will use Carrefour as a case to investigate and discuss its customer satisfaction strategies.

Aims and objectives
The aim of this thesis is learn how Carrefour maintain customer satisfied and what kind of programs do they carry out to maintain their customers in a regular phase. How do they keep customers away from getting defected by the competitors’ products? What does the company follow to win a greater share of wallet from their customers and how do they motivate their consumers to do extra purchase from their store or brand.
The objectives of customer satisfied programs are:
• To identify strategies to enhance the overall customer satisfaction
• To compare customer satisfaction of Carrefour against Lulu.
• To evaluate the impact of product variety, assortments and promotion on customer satisfaction.
• To provide suggestions and recommendations to enhance and improve customer satisfaction

Significance of Research
Explaining the significance of this research in one statement would be a business cannot exist without customer satisfaction. Whether we have run a multinational company or a small firm customer satisfaction is very precious and valuable. Customer satisfaction can be defined as an attitude given by a consumer to buy your product or service over similar ones present in the marketplace. A strong business marketing strategy should be investing time behind customer satisfaction and it should be considered as an integral component. Business shouldn’t focus only in acquiring new customers; it shouldn’t overlook the fact of retaining its customers. Due to some factors customer satisfaction is an important factor and few of them are as follows:
Repeat business the customers who are satisficed to you would buy your product again and again overtime and it is also possible that you may sell more to the satisfacted customers more than 10 first time customers.
Greater Volume as strong relationships are built with customers it becomes easy to sell to them in higher volumes and higher volumes directly mean higher overall benefits and higher transactions.
Research strategy that will be used to provide customers with surveys that has to be completed and this is how we will know how satisfied customers are with the prices and variety within Carrefour. The survey will include multiple choice questions related to how satisfied the customers are.
Research Strategy is a plan of how the research will go about answering the research questions that are set. Firstly, literature must be read and objectives should be finalized then a questionnaire will be conducted in the supermarket to know what makes customers satisfied.
I will conduct my research in Carrefour supermarket which is in Emirates Mall in Al Barsha, Dubai. Mostly customers in Carrefour supermarket will be targeted and around 20 customers will be given questionnaires with maximum of 10 questions. This will help in knowing the response of individual customers how satisfied they are with product assortment, variety, promotion and price. The questionnaires will be given to many customers and collected right away which later on will be used to analyse the data and reach to a final conclusion.
Research Methodology
It is the process that is usually used for collecting, analysing and knowing the purpose behind the research done for future business decisions. This may include questionnaires, interviews, surveys and other research techniques that could use either be primary or secondary data.
The process that is generally used for gathering, analysing and knowing the reason behind the research done for future business decisions. This might include questionnaires, interviews, surveys and other research strategies that could use either are primary or secondary data.
This study is done to investigate if the Supermarket makes the customer satisfied with the price, product variety and assortments and the area chosen for this survey are the individuals in Carrefour of Al Barsha. In this chapter we will discuss about the methods that are used to investigate this study.
The chapter defines and provide an understanding of the research methodology used in this study in an attempt to deliver efficient and comprehensive information related to the data collected.
Research is a formula of exploring, evaluating and understanding information in order to answer questions. Additionally, to attain a qualified research, the technique must have few assured and certain characteristics; it needs to be controlled.
Towards the end of this report I the researcher gathered the data expected to give a legitimate report. Techniques included into this task are studies of the customers and some individual meeting with the chief and the representatives. Resources used as a part of this assignment are from the web, Carrefour general store, books and rest from my own experience.
The other limitation is the survey that will be conducted for this study; it is not going to be very large. The survey would be conducted for 100 people and there is always a chance that if it is conducted on 1000 number of people or more than that; there is a chance of receiving different results.

Chapter 2
Literature review
Literature review is among one of the most important chapters in this study. It is a research journey which helps in framing the questions, searching what is relevant to the context, manages the results, synthesizes the research literature and also helps in writing the assessment of the literature.
Customer satisfaction: Customer satisfaction is a perception that gauges the satisfactory level for the brand to the consumer. Customer requirements can be met by providing quality service and quality products. Business competes for customers in a competitive market and in this competition market satisfaction of the customers with the brand is most necessary thing to be considered. There are four different methods to gain the higher level of customer satisfaction, those are communicating the price to target the market, understand the customer it’s needs and wants, building it simple for every purchaser to purchase and making value for customer. Business defines customer satisfaction is the only way to make money and increase in sell can happen by having a loyal and satisfied customer base. Competition is increased because of companies going global. The growing companies plan their own strategy in consumer intended manner. According to Higgens (1997) products perveived performance can be compared to the result of a person’s feelings of disappointment or pleasure is known as satisfaction as a customer’s contentment reaction with a more prejudiced view. But Oliver (1997) stated satisfaction as a customer’s contentment reaction with a more prejudiced view. The service feature or product, or else the service or product itself, can be judged if it provide a satisfying fulfillment or level of allied consumption.
In additional precise terms, customer satisfaction is the inclusive intensity of satisfaction with a service/product experience”. As per Higgins (1997), Product achievement depends on the satisfaction and value delivered to the targeted customers.
Therefore, customer satisfaction is the contentment of the presume requirements of the consumers later than the consumption of the provided service or product as an effect of collection or combined behavior focused on the consumers. Consequently the main fact to expand the capacity of target sale and to develop marginal profit, firms should focus satisfying their consumer. Satisfaction of customers has a straight and encouraging influence on firm’s success. Therefore researcher as well as scholars stressed the significance of satisfaction of customers in theoretical literature. In the other precise words customer satisfaction is a individual reflection that joints leading the specific consumer hopes and beliefs concerning the product and service. Hence, companies should look into the desired needs of their consumers to earn more profit (Singh, 2006). Mainly when competitive advantages become main fact then strategy planners are supposed to constantly try to increase the satisfactory level of customers (Sutanto, 2009).
Service features: Service features can be determined as the quality or the customers demand allied to the factor such as regularity, frequency, reliability, location, suitability, convenience and safety (Lubbe, 2003). Amongst each and every aspects, reliability is considered as the main service feature in a tactic to increase satisfaction of customers (Smith et al., 2007) but according to al. service as well as convenience particular factors (e.g. economical interest rates) are the two essential features to gain customer satisfaction. If service benefactors not succeed to well tackle such activities, the firm may have difficult consequences. However service features be different from environment to environment. On the other hand, in view of hypermarket environment, service features such as, service advantage of assistant; background and layout are the factors that gain satisfaction of customers (Shi and Su, 2007).
Service Quality: Quality of service is a consumer insight of the level of customer expectations depending on the service (Czepiel, 1990). This is measured as the main reason for increasing satisfaction level of the customers with brand (Geetika, 2010). However the investigation of the Cronin and Taylor (1992) found customer satisfaction as the key originator. Besides satisfying customers service quality (Grzinic, 2007) also measured as a value determined for customers and a way to locate products in a vigorous background (Kaul, 2005). Considering the consumers demands concerning the products and quality of service are beneficial for the organization (Sutanto, 2002).

Future Intentions: A future intention mainly depends on the satisfactory level of the customer from previous service quality or product (Boulding et al., 1993; Soderlund and Ohman, 2003). Many researchers have found different reasons having direct negative or positive link with future intentions. According to Ewing (2000) found product or service loyalty having strong effect on purchasing different or same brand and as per Singh. (2006) product consciousness and business image improved the consumer’s future intentions. According to Fen and Khan (2010) satisfaction of customers are directly affected by the customer support intentions. Purposeful service quality and purposeful service value are having strong influence on performance intentions while purposeful service price did not affect the future intention of the consumers (Khan, 2010). Satisfaction is determined as an emotional position consequential from a consumer’s relations with a service provider on time (Cronin et al., 1992). As per Oliver (1987) satisfaction is a function of perceptive judgment of expectations subsequent to consumption with the real practice. This procedure is frequently stated to as the disconfirmation model, therefore customers make a re-purchase comparison among actual performances received and repurchase expectations (Oliver, 1987).
Positive disconfirmation occurs and leads to satisfaction when real performance surpasses prospects, while real performance prospects results in undesirable disconfirmation and unhappiness. There are two main conceptualization of satisfaction those are mentioned below: cumulative satisfaction and transaction-specific. Appraisal of cumulative satisfaction mainly depends on the organisation’s current, past, and futre service performance. Besides, transaction-specific satisfaction may present particular analytical information about a specific service performance. Many studies in the service marketing literature have assumed and validated empirically the link between customer loyalties such as customer recommendations; re-purchase intentions, usage of a service, share of wallet, and retention and satisfaction.
Numerous scholars have found that Customer Satisfaction is complicated. In general, providing consumer values is the key factor for business to satisfy their consumer requirements. It is the main factor for Customer Satisfaction of Supermarkets and hypermarkets. A promotional strategy is a type of encouragement for customers to purchase products and services. Promotional strategies can be a special package discount, coupons, bonus gifts etc. It offers an extra savings for customers, and thus makes some financial value. In other precise words, promotion value is a contrast among the real financial profits received by customers and the financial cost of the service. Numerous scholars have shown an important part of customers perceived economic value concerning future decisions as well as satisfaction. The company can frequently innovate products, and distinguish itself from rivals by applying different promotional strategies. Promotion can increase sustainable value and uniqueness to attract customers because it can be more challenging to reproduce for maintain affortable price for the consumers as well as the product quality. While defining the relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Promotion, Oliver (1993) first recommended that promotion can be the key strategy used to gain customer satisfaction. Many investigations analytically support the statement that customer satisfaction is influenced by promotional strategies. Moreover, many studies also support the progressive impact of the real expressive value of customer satisfaction. Brand image states to some characteristics, such as being friendly, reasonable, adaptable, dependable, modern, responsible to society and adaptable to the changing environment. According to Martensen et al (2000) designate this brand image as an key element of the customer satisfaction theory. While describing, Saeed, Khan and Hussain (2009) recommend that brand image, expectations and loyalty have a great influence on satisfaction. Andreassen et al (1998) suggest that brand image, through a filtering consequence, influences a consumer’s evaluation of service quality, satisfaction and value. In additional words, brand image creates a high effect on customer satisfaction. In this research, an increasing or relational level measure reflects a consumer’s overall satisfaction, and the satisfactory level of the firm represents the brand image (Bloemer et al 1988). As such, brand image has been imagined to have a important, optimistic influence on customer satisfaction. The elements of the customer satisfaction are hypothesized in this research. They are as: hedonic benefits, brand image, customer values of functional benefits. These functional benefits talks about the instrumental, practical and functional benefits of consumption offerings (Perreault and MacCathy, 2005).

Product variety and assortments
Product variety and assortments are vital in any supermarket because the more the customer have choices to choose from the more satisfied the customer is and needs are. People need to know about the products and be persuaded to buy it. It is the act of spreading awareness of larger variety of products than its competitors. There are 4P’s in marketing mix which are price, place, product and promotion. Customers get to know about place and products through advertisement, posters and displays. Short term sales are helpful to make customer aware of place in the market which uses competition and contests to market their product. This helps in maximizing the customer’s satisfaction and results in higher sales and market share.
Supermarkets have a wide range of imported food and non-food product assortments and variety with different types of items. It became a stronger competitor with smart, effective and more personalized variety. Activities like points based loyalty programs and coupons make the relationship between the supermarket and the customers even stronger.
Brunner and Mason (1968) investigated the importance of driving time upon the preferences of consumers towards regional shopping centers. They expressed that although it is recognized that population, purchasing power, population density, newspaper circulation, and other factors are influential in determining the shopping habits of consumers, a factor which is generally overlooked is the driving time required to reach the center. In this study, it was established that the driving time required to reach a center is highly influential in determining consumer shopping center preferences. The most consistent and significant driving time dimension in delineating shopping center trade areas was found at the 15-minute driving points, as three-fourths of each center’s shoppers resided within this range.
Jackson, Stoel and Brantley (2011) in their paper expressed that the customer segments seek out relevant shopping venues based on their shopping wants and needs. Knowledge of the preferences of distinct consumer groups is useful in the development of marketing communications, as well as for designing mall configurations that are likely to generate patronage and repatronage due to the value creating potential. Advertising materials could express the specific attributes the mall has to offer to the cohorts comprising its customer base, either by gender, generation, or both. When a retailer or mall owner finds that a large segment of its consumers are from particular segments (e.g. generation, gender), the company can focus segment relevant ways to facilitate and promote a shopping experience that will drive shopping value and create potential.
Defining product assortment and variety
Product assortment is the different types of products lines and items that a business makes or a retailer offers for sale. Product assortment consists of the following characteristics:
• Breadth: The breadth of a company’s products relates to the number of product lines a company produces or a retailer carries.
• Length: This refers to the number of products in a particular product chain or line.
• Depth: A product line’s depth relates to the different versions of the same product that may exist in each product line.
• Consistency: Consistency is the degree to which the product lines relate to each other.
Variety is basically a number of different types of things, especially the once in the same general category.
Techniques that can lead customers to shop again at Carrefour
We all know every company has competitors but supermarkets like Carrefour are heavily competitive by rival supermarkets, it is tough to be in the market and not easy thing to make customers come back to shop. This is where product assortment and variety comes, loyal customers shop again because what people get in Carrefour are the brands and products which are mostly not available in other supermarkets. Also there is a section of non-halal products in some of theCarrefouroutlets; this too attracts non-Muslims to come at Carrefour again.
What makes customers shop again is not only because of the variety and price but also the place, how convenient it’s for customers to access the outlet, the availability of parking space, cleanliness, return policies and conditions, friendly and helpful staff, staff having basic knowledge about products, items displacement, payment options these all things also do matters in customer satisfaction and can also help Carrefour get loyal customers. Putting offers and promotions can help get more loyal customers and if they like the environment and products, most probably customer would like to shop again.
Secondly Carrefour can make an online grocery website which can be very helpful for potential customers, like this customer doesn’t need to drive or walk to the Supermarket but instead customer can get the things wanted at doorstep by home delivery and also by having an website customer doesn’t need to hassle around to find the item he/she wanted in Supermarket, they can simply search it in search box in website. These techniques can surely make customers to shop again at Carrefour.
Promotion is a term used frequently in marketing and is one of the market mix elements. It refers to raising customer awareness of a product or brand, generating sales, and creating brand loyalty. It is one of the four basic elements of the market mix, which includes the four P’s: price, product, promotion, and place.
Promotion is one of the strategies used by companies in order to draw customer’s and fill the aim of the organization. This research will focus on the impact of promotional strategies to gain customer satisfaction. In the framework of the marketing mix, promotion signifies the various characteristics of marketing communication, which is creating a positive response of the product in customers mind. Promotion signifies all the communication strategies that are inserted by a marketer in market place.
These communication strategies may include radio, TV and print advertising, as well as billboards, coupons, online advertising and direct mail. One of the less precise parts in promotion is the part of a human sales force. Besides, customers can buy the product only when sold by the support of a well-known salesperson. This perceived service of the product can be stated as the main feature of the product (Perreault and MacCathy,2005).
Promotion is also defined as one of five pieces in the promotional mix or promotional plan. These are personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, and publicity. A promotional mix specifies how much attention to pay to each of the five factors, and how much money to budget.
Promotion covers the methods of communication that a marketer uses to provide information about it’s product. Information can be both verbal and visual.
There are three objectives of promotion. These are:
1. To present information to consumers and others.
2. To increase demand.
3. To differentiate a product.
The purpose of a promotion and thus its promotional plan can have a wide range, including: sales increases, new product acceptance, creation of brand equity, positioning, competitive retaliations, or creation of a corporate image.The term ‘promotion’ tends to be used internally by the marketing function. To the public or the market, phrases like “special offer” are more common. Examples of some fully integrated promotion are deal of the day, part time sale, crazy deals etc.
Promotion has many elements those can be well considered while implementing. Such as:
1) Advertising: Advertising the product or explaining the brand features can be considered as attracting customers and creating a high trademark image to them. Advertisements can be done through many ways, TV, Radio, Billboards, Transports, Banners in shopping malls, Newspaper and social media etc. Highlighting the special collections and the quality of the product in such Ads can easily attract customers.

2) Personal selling: The verbal communication between the purchasers and the sales person is known as personal selling. Personal selling has a great impact on fulfilling the target sales. Sales person are recruited to deal with the customer and make them understand about the usefulness of particular product or service. Sales person are also necessary to provide customers with detailed knowledge about the product. Way of communication of the sales person should be considered in case of personal selling.
3) Sales promotion: This special feature of promotion strategy can be used to target buyers, create an incentive for purchase, respond to special occasions. Sales promotion can be targeted towards consumers. This strategy can be used as “Buy 1 get 1 free”, bundle packs and special discounts on large pack buying.

4) Internet marketing: Internet marketing can be considered as one of the dominant strategy applied by the multinational companies. Nowadays people are addicted to social media and internet. People like to browse online webpage than visiting stores directly to check variety and range of products. Internet can be used to promote products and advertise variously to attract customers. Internet plays an important role to be one of the communications programs. Social media, internet webpages, blogs, journals, video servers etc can be used for promotion and internet marketing.

5) Public Relations: Public realations is an organisation’s communications that seek to build good relationships with an organisation’s publics, including consumers, stockholders and legislators. It includes obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good “corporate image.” And handling or heading off unfavorable rumors, stories and events. Publicity is unpaid communication about an organisation that appears in the mass media. Public relations may consist of writing press releases, holding special events, conducting and publishing consumer surveys about a product or the company, and efforts to put a positive spin or negative company news. Unlike sales promotions public relations activities do not usually seek a short-term increase in sales. Instead, they try to craft a long-term positive image for the product or the organization. Compared with personal selling, advertising, and sales promotions, expenditures for public relations are usually low in most organisations. Since companies do not pay for publicity, they have less control over the publications for good or bad company news. But this often means that consumers find this type of news source more believable than if the information were disseminated directly by the company.
6) Direct marketing: Direct marketing also plays an important role for the promotional strategy of a business. Catalogs, telemarketing, direct mail, direct phone call/messages can be used to promote the brand products to the consumers (Perreault and MacCathy, 2005).

Chapter 3
Research Philosophy
Research philosophy is known as the outermost layer of the research onion. It is characterized in to epistemology and ontology. Epistemology is complicated through the viewpoint of knowledge. Usually it is well-defined such as “Knowledge that” by means of comparing to “Knowledge how” (Fleetwood and Ackroyd, 2009). While doing the theoretical study philosophy it compacts with the matter regarding how information is resulting and how it is supposed to be verified or legalized. However, Ontology is mainly a logical philosophy studying the ordinary presence of something (Audi, et al, 2005).
As per Wilson (2013) research philosophy is a faith regarding collecting of data, analyzing of data, and interpreting the data needed. The core of research philosophy lies in these mentioned processes. Different kinds of research philosophy lies in these mentioned processes. Different kinds of research philosophy have been described in research onion. Furthermost key ones are interpretative, objectivist, Realism, Subjectivist, pragmatism, radical humanistic, radical structuralist and functionalist.
As per the topic, Overall Customer Satisfaction on Carrefour in relation to product assortment, variety and promotion, Interpretive is deliberated to be more in effect because interpretive research consisted of subjective social reality. The philosophy of interpretive research is every person has different sense and ideas and considering them to the final result is the reality. However, in an interpretative research it is entirely constructed on the preferences as well as investigation of the researcher but positivism is constructed on the statement that “reality exits independently of the thing being studied” (Hale et al, 2013)

The Research Approach:
After philosophy the next layer in the research onion is research approach. The research approach is constructed based on the scheme of research study. The research approaches are of two types mentioned below: Inductive, Deductive.
According to Collins (2010) Deductive approach is consisted of raising a hypothesis and a theory and to develop a research strategy to outcome hypothesis but, Inductive approach is constructed with the development of new theories by developing from the data collected. On other hand quantitative data cannot be indicated as a quantity and cannot be calculated.
According to our research objectives are based, using the combination of deductive and inductive approach is deliberated to be more in effect. Using both deductive and inductive method can balance the control of one type of approach in this research.
According to Glase (2014) applying both deductive along with induction approach is deliberated as a considerable fact in interpretive research.
Research Strategies:
According to Breckon (2004) there are various types of strategies that a researcher can select for precise investigation. Research strategies mainly depend on the researcher and the type of research. Those strategies are case studies, surveys, experiment, action research, grounded theory, archival research and ethnography.
Investigational research implicates the strategy of generating investigation process that will evaluate the outcome of a research in contradiction of the expected outcome while action research is defined “as a practical approach to specific research problem within a community of practice” (Woszczynski et al, 2004).
Though, in this certain research all the information and data is collected from Carrefour, and distributing the questionnaires to the customers and individual/group interviews. Amongst all other approaches survey is most appropriate for this research.

Research Methodology:
Methodology is the technique that can be utilized to collect information. Research methodology used to support work and strategies utilized as a part, in order to collect data. Collecting quantitative information is measuring variables and confirming existing hypotheses or theories or addressing them. Information is regularly used to produce new hypotheses based on the data collected about different variables. And quantitative information is additionally collected in accordance with certain analysis vehicles and underlying analysis questions. Even the production of numbers is guided by the varieties of questions asked of the topics, thus is basically subjective, though it seems less thus than qualitative analysis information. There are 2 main pes of strategies which are quantitative research and subjective research.
• Quantitative research is used to produce statistics results and it is also important to survey a large number of people so that it’s fair and it’s a representative sample for target market.
• Qualitative research is an open ended interview. It is valuable when new products are developing in the market and want to test reactions of the customers. In this research opinions of the people matter to understand their feeling and to get to know about their thinking.
The method that is used in this survey are both quantitative and qualitative since it is logical and easy way of collecting information from people to make a final decision but is followed by both methods to explore further.

Process of the Research Methodology.
In this study we need to consider the process required for this research. Here, this research methodology has steps which are:

Choices of data:
Data choice mainly depends on the type of research. There are three different types of data such as, mixed method, mono method and multi method. In mono method the researcher can use only one method of data in the research. Mixed method is used to use both quantitative and qualitative methods. Multi method is used to apply several methods in a particular research (Jackson et al, 2012).
As per our research objectives are based on so using mixed method is appropriate for this research. Mixed method will benefit the researcher to collect both qualitative and quantitative data for Carrefour.

Time Horizon:
Time horizon is known as the structure within which the research project is supposed to be concluded. Time horizon can be of two different type, such as longitudinal and cross-sectional.
Cross-sectional time horizon involves the study of particular topic at a specific time. Cross-sectional takes less time and this allows the researcher to complete the whole research in a shot pan of time. Longitudinal time horizon included the collection many times and it takes more time for the researcher to complete the research (Carrol, 2010).
According to this research Cross sectional time horizon is appropriate because this research needs to be completed in a very short time.
Techniques and procedures:
Techniques and procedures is mainly how a researcher plan out the steps to collect the data/information needed to finally prove a result based on the topic and research questions. The validity of the research depends on the process of this stage in a particular research (Jupp and Sapsford, 2006).
Population of Internet:
Population of interest is the main part of a research project. Researcher should target a specific population those who will be distributed the questionnaires and involve in the surveys conducted. This step includes the people of a specific age, gender, children, nationalities etc. Population is differentiated in two categories; Accessible population and target population. Accessible population can be used by the researcher by the researcher to apply the research conclusions with their opinions. But, target population involves individuals to whom the research is conducted (Lowery and Grey, 2000).
As the research is based on, hence the study will be conducted on the customers visiting Carrefour in MOE (Mall of the Emirates)
But, conducting the research on all customers may be tough for the research to compete the research in short time. So, the researcher will use sample techniques to consume less time to conduct the research.
Data Collection Method:
Data collection technique is used to complete the study in an operative or in well-organised tactic. Data collection is divided into two parts such as, Primary data and secondary data.
Primary data is the data collected by the researcher through questionnaires, surveys, personal interviews etc. Primary data includes both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data is known as the case studies, and personal interviews. Quantitative data is collected from surveys, and questionnaires.
The data conducted by other scholars/researchers can be collected from articles, newspapers, blogs, and different research papers etc. is known as secondary data (Pawar et al, 2004).
As per the research topic using the primary method would be more effective. But, according to Pawar (2013) using both primary and secondary data makes it easy for the researcher to test the validity of research.