Capstone Papers-marine science

Capstone Papers-marine science

What is the difference between freshwater lakes and oceans in terms of the formation of surface ice? Consider the sequence of events as both cool in the fall and winter. What does this tell us about the bottom temperature in lakes? What events occur in lakes during the fall and spring? Does the ocean behave the same way? The oceans are observed to only have sea ice in regions with a strong near surface halocline that isolates the deep ocean from the fresh polar or winter waters. Discuss the reasons behind this observation.

Discuss the challenges for terrestrial animals going back to live in the sea. Give some examples of organisms that have returned to the sea and the specific adaptations that have allowed this transition. Discuss the evolutionary advantages for returning to the sea. How do the bioenergetics of these

Marine organisms gain fluid typically from the surrounding water if it is too fresh, yet bull sharks are found upstream in the Mississippi and Zambezi Rivers and in Lake Nicaragua. How do they cope with the osmotic change? Specifically discuss the physiology involved in this situation and its energy cost.