For this context and health and wellbeing issue, you are asked to design an intervention. Prepare a program design document that contains the following:
- A brief introduction to the context, health and wellbeing issue, and determinants (you do not need to present a formal stakeholder analysis matrix or problem tree in this report, although you may wish to use them in planning your thinking).
- Describe the intervention(s) you are proposing and the reasons you are proposing those intervention(s) (this should include the evidence for the effectiveness of your interventions for your target group, existing services that are in place, and other feasibility issues that are relevant to the context). It is not necessary to provide prioritisation matrices, even if you have used them, though it is expected that you briefly discuss the criteria/values that you used to select your intervention.
- Present and discuss a logic model to describe how your interventions may be expected to address the health and wellbeing issue.
and justify the five most important evaluation questions for your
program/project, made up of:
- Two evaluation questions you would ask at the end of year 1
- Three evaluation questions you would ask at the end of the project (final evaluation) that includes at least one priority outcome evaluation question
- Present a communication strategy for how you will communicate the outcomes of the final evaluation of your program to different stakeholder groups. This can be in the way of a table, but you will need to include text justifying this approach.
You are the program design team leader for an organisation (please choose between a non- government or government organisation and make this clear in your report) with expertise in the context and issues described in your chosen scenario. It is assumed that a needs assessment has already been undertaken in this context, and that you have been asked to lead/facilitate the process of designing an appropriate intervention. If your program is approved, you will have access to up to AUD$2 million in funding over the next five years (which includes the time taken to design and roll out the program), but you are not required to use all of this funding. You may also make reasonable assumptions about being able to engage with local resources (government, NGO, community) and collaborate with local organisations. There is a possibility the funding may be continued after five years, but this is not certain. The design document you are preparing is for presentation to technical experts in your health problem and context, who will decide whether your intervention should be funded.
Writing a program design document
This is not an academic essay but a report. A program design document is a common form of health communication that is primarily used as a technical document to brief stakeholders, and advocate for support and guide implementation. The language used may be less formal than academic writing, and the report should be structured with headings and subheadings to guide the reader.
Referencing should use the Harvard (name, date) system. In-text citations and the list of references are not included in the word count.
As with all academic writing, any ideas or work that is your own creation for this assignment does not need referencing, but other people’s work (or your own work for other subjects/projects) does need to be referenced if used. General concepts like logic models, problem trees, stakeholder analysis frameworks etc. do not need to be referenced.
You are encouraged to refer to sources on the context in which your program is set, but you are also allowed to make reasonable assumptions about the context where data are not easily available or specific to your region – from assuming the presence of certain services or organisations, to certain data points. Please make it clear at what points you are making assumptions, and make sure your assumptions are reasonable.
Information presented in the background tutorial group work documents may be taken as assumed knowledge for the audience and may be quoted without referencing, unless it is itself referenced to another source (eg where the group work scenarios from Tutorial 2 quote from national surveys or statistics).
Below is a Sample Paper. You Can Order a Custom Essay Written From Scratch From Our Website. Click Here to Order.
DEPRESSION IN THE ELDERLY ABORIGINALS IN MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA
Depression in the Elderly Aboriginals in Melbourne, Australia
Depression is a mental illness characterised by extreme sensations of distress (Urban Mental Health Case Study, n.d., p.1). Based on the available literature, depression rates and the risk of developing the mood disorder among the elderly aboriginals are quite high (McNamara et al., 2018, p.147). Fortunately, coming up with a scheme that entails a number of interventions would help enhance the current situation facing the older generation among the native people. In this case, as a non-government organization (NGO), our program will include the lifestyle, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and pharmacological interventions. Incorporating distinct interventions will promote a healthy way of living and this will subsequently help in prevention and treatment of depression among the elderly aboriginal individuals in Melbourne.
One of the actions the NGO should implement is the lifestyle intervention. Recent research shows that poor diet and physical inactivity contribute to the development of depression (Jacka & Berk, 2012, p.21). People who embrace the Mediterranean mode of eating as well as individuals who are physically active tend to have a minimal risk of the mental conditions. Based on the available information, it seems that a high number of natives participate in unhealthy habits (Waterworth et al., 2015, p.1). It thereby means that the aboriginals are highly bound to develop depression due to their way of living. Fortunately, researchers portray a positive linkage between lifestyle interventions and depression (Cezaretto et l., 2016, p.649). It is thus important to incorporate a lifestyle approach in the institution to ensure that the wellbeing of the indigenous older adults is safeguarded.
The inclusion criteria for the scheme should entail individuals aged 50 years and above and also those with an inactive lifestyle. The lifestyle advisor (LSA) will be responsible for coaching and supervising the patients. It is essential that an LSA holds sessions to constantly encourage the adoption of healthy habits including taking balanced diets. Another thing is that the LSA will be required to refer a patient to a qualified exercise coach. It is important that a patient is assigned a professional coach to ensure the elderly participate in exercise that best suit their ages such as stationary bicycle riding and water aerobics. The purpose of the 1-year intervention is to accomplish health benefits through enhanced dietary behaviour and improved physical activity.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
The NGO should also adopt cognitive behaviour therapy because counsellors speak highly of the therapeutic approach. The action group research (ARG) asserts that the psychological intervention is applicable to both children and the elderly (Bennett-Levy et al., 2014, p.4). Further, it can be used for prevention and health enhancement purposes. According to Bennett-Levy et al (2014, p.4), it empowers clients and also encourages one’s sense of self-agency. As earlier stated, the indigenous people often engage in unhealthy habits including substance abuse and this further worsens or at times triggers depression. Statistics show that alcohol intake among the aboriginals is almost twice the rate among the non-indigenous individuals (Gray et al., 2018, p.6). Perhaps, it could be due to their sociable character. Their social lifestyle under the context of financial hardship promotes behaviours such as sharing of cigarettes. A CBT will help in both the prevention and treatment of depression.
A psychologist will be required to hold face-to-face sessions with a patient within the health facility. As a psychologist, one will have to focus on enhancing one’s emotional regulation as well as challenging and transforming irrelevant cognitive distortions ranging from one’s beliefs to the attitude. It is substantial that as patient comprehends the need to respond to emotional experiences in a socially tolerable way. At times, clients will be provided with handouts at the end of a session to simply remind oneself what he/she has so far gone through with the psychologist. The 9-month initiative will help prevent drug abuse and deterioration of the mental disorder.
Additionally, the pharmacological intervention will be of substantial importance to the elderly natives particularly to those suffering from chronic diseases. According to the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (2010, p.260), antidepressants treat the mental disorder in persons suffering from long-term diseases. The indigenous people experience poor health and consequently tend to have worse medical outcomes. Based on research, conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer are common among the elderly aboriginals (“Department of Health,” 2017, n.p.). Drugs such as trazodone will be administered through outpatient as well as inpatient services. The health clinic staff will be required to constantly follow up a client’s health status to ensure issues such as prescription drug abuse do not emerge.
Criteria used in Selecting the Interventions
A criterion essential in establishing interventions is to determine the focus and scope of a program (“Session 1, Day 3 From Needs Assessment to Intervention Selection,” n.d., p. 4). Focus entails the primary objective of a program whereas the scope involved a wide range of interests covered by a scheme. The project leader together with the team members thereby began with determining the focus and scope for the initiative. In this case, the focus was to enhance the mental well-being of the elderly aboriginals living in Melbourne. On the flip side, the scope entailed ensuring the target group embraces a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, the interventions were selected based on what was required to be delivered. The interventions ensure that older native people in Melbourne embrace healthy eating, physical activity and cease substance abuse to prevent depression and to enhance one’s wellbeing.
A Logic Model
|Staff time Finances Partners||Activities||Target Group||Short||Medium||Long|
|Cognitive behaviour therapy sessions Lifestyle discussions Face to face interactions and strict follow-ups||Elderly aboriginals|
|Knowledge Attitude Motivation Skills||Change of a client’s behaviour Treat Referrals||Individual resilience Increased quality of life Health disparities significantly reduce|
The main inputs of the model include time, finances and partners. Different workers within the NGO will be required to dedicate their time for the project to run successfully. Some of the professionals will include lifestyle advisors, nurses, physicians, psychiatrists, and psychologists. Further, the NGO will be required to establish partnerships with individuals such as exercise and diet experts. Besides, adequate finances will be needed to fund various activities and entities such as lifestyle coaches.
One of the activities will involve holding lifestyle discussions with the elderly aboriginals. Here, individuals will be educated on the causes of depression which will include physical inactivity and poor dietary. The natives will be encouraged to embrace healthy eating and active lives to avoid diseases such as depression and chronic conditions. Another activity will entail having CBT sessions where clients and psychologists will interact one on one. Psychologists will be expected to influence an individual’s perceptions, particularly towards substance abuse. The CBT meet-ups should be at least twice a week to ensure that the possibility of relapsing is minimal. Face-to-face interactions and thorough follow-ups will also be prioritized especially with the pharmacological intervention. The approach focuses on administering antidepressants even to individuals suffering from chronic diseases. The follow-ups are thereby crucial to ensure that clients do not develop prescription dependency.
Following the implementation of the program, short, medium and long-term outcomes are expected. In regards to short-term effects, it is anticipated that there will be an increased level of awareness among the aboriginals. The elderly natives will be more knowledgeable than before regarding the issue of depression. They will be aware of the different causes of the mood disorder and this will, in turn, change their attitudes towards things such as substance abuse. Individuals will be highly motivated to quit unhealthy behaviours and will be ready to embrace their newly learned skills.
As for medium-term outcomes, the anticipation is that aboriginals will change their behaviours. Having learned about the skills and the repercussions of indulging in unhealthy actions, it is expected that the native people will gear towards living a healthy life. With interventions such as the pharmacological in place, the desire will be to ensure that individuals suffering from depression are well treated. Nevertheless, in situations where treatment is not attained, referrals will be done. Besides, in scenarios where a partnership with external entities is required, the practice staffs will refer clients to other experts.
On the long run, the program desires that individuals struggling with unhealthy lifestyles develop resilience. Those struggling with poor eating behaviours and substance abuse should be in a position to adhere to the newly learned information regarding living healthy. Further, the program aims at enhancing the quality of life. The initiative should increase an individual’s level of life satisfaction ranging from internal happiness to social interactions. Moreover, the interventions should decline the health disparities among the aboriginals and non-Aboriginals decline. The program should ensure that the elderly aboriginals become aware of the risks exposing them to depression and that they change their behaviour to enhance their quality of life.
Evaluation Questions for the Program
Evaluation Questions to ask at the End of Year 1
Based on the lecture notes, one should consider several factors such as the intended users before establishing the evaluation questions. In this case, some of the intended users include the funders and the elderly aboriginals who will be the clients. It is thereby essential that the program remains effective to ensure financial support is not withdrawn and that the native people continue benefiting from it. The following two questions would be some of the queries to ask at the end of year 1?
- How productive is the program?
- How can change be incorporated to enhance the program?
Evaluation Questions to ask at the End of the Project
As the project comes to an end, it is substantial that the team reflects on the achievements the program has attained. Thus, the following questions will be asked at the end of the program;
- Why was the project initiated?
- How has the project fulfilled its purpose?
- How has the quality of life among the target group been impacted?
A Communication Strategy
Communication strategies are of paramount importance for every organization. Therefore, the NGO should incorporate some approaches to inform the public regarding its protocols and schemes. The NGO should utilize health promotion campaigns to raise awareness regarding its program which primarily targets diabetic and depression patients. It is important that the NGO takes the initiative of interacting with the community through holding a number of events amongst the aboriginal people to enlighten them on health and to also create awareness of the program. Moreover, the institution will make use of social media because the main purpose of the program is not just to manage and treat conditions but to also prevent chronic illnesses and depression. Utilizing social media will be of much benefit to the institution because research shows that the platform eliminates physical access as well as geographical obstacles (Welch et al., 2016, p.63). A considerable number of adults are signed to various online platforms and this will be a good strategy to reach them.
As much as informing the public is essential, interacting within an organization is also important. Research shows that internal communication has a positive impact on institutional and employee productivity (Karanges et al., 2015, p.130). Encouraging conversations within the workforce encourages staffs to share their perspectives and ideas. It is the desire of the NGO to make certain that the working environment is conducive to its workers because this would consequently translate to the effectiveness of the scheme. The NGO will thereby have to ensure meetings are held constantly. The meet-ups at times will be brief but the overall intent will be to ensure that workers remain updated regarding the program. Additionally, the NGO should embrace the use of memos especially when there is a considerable need to inform staffs of policy changes. Exploiting the memos will be an effective approach for the NGO because it does not take a lot of time to read through it.
In brief, the program will be of paramount significance to the older aboriginal adults. The initiative will provide an opportunity for the native people to interact with various interventions including the lifestyle, pharmacological and cognitive behaviour therapy. Through the scheme, older indigenous adults will learn crucial tips on healthy ways of living that can help them improve their health and later prevent them from relapsing. Besides, the initiative is expected to transition one’s attitudes and opinions regarding certain practices and this should consequently translate into adoption of new positive behaviours. Moreover, as much as one will have access to pharmacological intervention, a healthcare provider should ensure there is a thorough follow-up to avoid cases of prescription abuse. The program is highly bound to minimize the rates and the risks of developing depression among the older indigenous adults in Melbourne.
Bennett‐Levy, J., Wilson, S., Nelson, J., Stirling, J., Ryan, K., Rotumah, D., Budden, W. and Beale, D., 2014. Can CBT be effective for Aboriginal Australians? Perspectives of Aboriginal practitioners trained in CBT. Australian Psychologist, 49(1), pp.1-7. Available at: www.cbttraining.com.au/wp-content/uploads/pdf_publications/Bennett-Levy%20et%20al%20(2014)%20Aboriginal%20CBT%20copy.pdf
Cezaretto, A., Ferreira, S.R.G., Sharma, S., Sadeghirad, B. and Kolahdooz, F., 2016. Impact of lifestyle interventions on depressive symptoms in individuals at-risk of, or with, type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 26(8), pp.649-662. Available at: https://www.nmcd-journal.com/article/S0939-4753(15)30186-1/pdf
Department of Health. (2017). Chroni.c Conditions. Available at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/chronic-disease
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Karanges, E., Johnston, K., Beatson, A. and Lings, I. 2015. The influence of internal communication on employee engagement: A pilot study. Public Relations Review, 41(1), pp.129-131. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270968609_The_influence_of_internal_communication_on_employee_engagement_A_pilot_study
McNamara, B.J., Banks, E., Gubhaju, L., Joshy, G., Williamson, A., Raphael, B. and Eades, S., 2018. Factors relating to high psychological distress in Indigenous Australians and their contribution to Indigenous–non‐Indigenous disparities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 42(2), pp.145-152. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1753-6405.12766
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK), 2010. Depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem: Treatment and management. British Psychological Society. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK82916/pdf/Bookshelf_NBK82916.pdf
Session 1, Day 3 From needs assessment to intervention selection. (n.d.). In Prioritising and Planning in Public Health.
Urban Mental Health Case Study. (n.d.). In Tutorial 1 – Prioritising and Planning in Public Health.
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