Custom Essay Writing Services-Global Epidemics paper

  • Preparation

Suppose that within your health care organization there is no formal process or structure for health care professionals to volunteer time and services in times of global need. You would like to develop a proposal for establishing a process that would allow nurses and other health care professionals to secure time off to work with a specific worldwide organization, to provide health care services during global events. As part of the proposal, you would need to provide background research to support your request.

Conduct background research on either one of the following to support the proposal you would develop:

  • Choose one worldwide epidemic, such as the 2009 flu pandemic, 2009 mumps outbreak, 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak, the recent Ebola virus epidemic, or another epidemic. Research articles that focus on how the initial outbreak was handled; the role of social attitudes and issues of race, class, and gender in responding to the outbreak; barriers to people receiving proper health care; and the role of nursing in providing health care services related to the epidemic.
  • Choose one natural disaster, such as the earthquakes in Haiti, Pakistan, or Nepal; Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar; the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, or any other natural disaster that brought a worldwide response. Research articles that focus on the initial response to the disaster; the role of social attitudes and issues of race, class, and gender in responding to the disaster; barriers to survivors receiving health care; and the role of nursing in providing health care services related to the disaster.

Requirements

For this assessment, develop background research that would support a proposal for an organizational process allowing health care professionals to volunteer time and services when global events happen. First, identify the global event you will be using in your research, and then:

  • Explain how the local and national (meaning the nation in which the event took place) communities responded to the event. Who responded? How long did the first response take? How did health care providers respond?
  • Explain how social attitudes, as well as issues of race, class, gender, or other factors may have influenced the response to the event. Be sure you consider not only the response of the home country, but the global response as well.
  • Describe barriers to health care services for the people impacted by the event. Some barriers may be obvious, and other barriers less obvious; try to consider multiple aspects.
  • Explain the role of international health organizations and altruistic organizations in providing health care services related to the global event.
  • Explain the role of the professional nurse in providing health care services related to the global event. Consider scope of practice when working professionally out of one’s area of license—either nationally or globally.

Additional Requirements

Complete your assessment using the following specifications:

  • Title page and reference page.
  • Number of pages: 5–6 (not  including the title and reference pages).
  • At least 4 current scholarly or professional resources.
  • APA format for the entire document, including citations and references.
  • Times New Roman font, 12-point, double-spaced.
  • Overview

Write a 5–6 page, APA-formatted report that explains the responses to a global event, how issues of race, class, and gender may have affected the response, and the role of international and altruistic organizations in providing health care services related to the event. Describe barriers to receiving health care services related to the event, and explain the role of the professional nurse in providing health care services related to the global event.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 1: Explain the factors that affect the health of communities.
    • Explain the response to a global event at the local and national levels.
    • Explain how social attitudes and issues of race, class, and/or gender may impact the response to a global event.
    • Explain the role of international and altruistic organizations in providing health care services during a global event.
    • Competency 2: Apply evidence-based interventions to promote health and disease prevention and respond to community health issues.
      • Explain the role of the professional nurse in providing health care services related to global events.
    • Competency 3: Develop an evidence-based nursing response for providing health care services related to community crises.
      • Describe barriers to health care services during a global event.
    • Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for a nursing professional.
      • Write content clearly and logically with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
      • Correctly format paper, citations, and references, using current APA style.
    •  
  • Context

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), natural disasters kill approximately 90,000 people and impact another 160 million people every year (2015). Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and wildfires not only have an immediate impact on those who live in and around the affected area, they also often have a longer-term effect on the health and well-being of those impacted. Developing countries are frequently unable to respond to natural disasters effectively and efficiently because they lack resources, infrastructure, and disaster-preparedness systems.

Poor health care systems in developing countries also make these countries more vulnerable to epidemics such as the recent outbreak of Ebola in Chad, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. According to a report from Save the Children (2015), some developing countries have less than one health care worker for every 2,000 people. Other diseases such as malaria and pneumonia account for as many as 17,000 child deaths every day (Save the Children, 2015).

Nurses can provide critical skills during times of global events. Whether by volunteering directly at the site of the event or by recruiting, screening, and training other professional nurses behind the scenes, nurses are crucial to global relief efforts.

  • Questions to Consider

To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.

  • What does it mean to be a global citizen?
    • What responsibility do health care professionals assume during times of global events, by being global citizens?

Below is a Sample Paper. You Can Order a Custom Essay Written From Scratch From Our Website. CLICK HERE TO ORDER.

Global Events

Introduction

The 2009 flu pandemic was first described in April 2009, and the virus appeared to be a new version of the previous H1N1 which was as a result of the previous reassortment of human, bird and pig flu viruses which further integrated with Eurasian pig flu virus, which made it be called “swine flu.” The first swine flu case was declared in Veracruz, Mexico, with a proof that the virus had existed months before it was declared a pandemic. By the end of April, the cases were detected in several other US states as well as other nations of the parts of the world. In late April, the WHO declared 2009 flu pandemic a world pandemic and termed it as a matter of global concern or public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). The epidemic started to decline in November 2009, and by May 2010, the death cases had significantly reduced. There were strong surveillance and international emergency response for caring, screening, and counseling victims as well as survivors. Healthcare workers and nurses across the world and the global organizations contributed significantly in hospitals, health centers, and communities. The emergency response teams of nurses were tasked with diagnosis, rapid patient isolation, tracing contacts, efforts to prevent and control the spread of infection as well as engagement with the affected community.

The Local and National Response to 2009 Flu Pandemic

The 2009 flu pandemic was initially considered an outbreak in Mexico and the Mexican authorities shut down several Mexico City’s public and private amenities to try to control the spread of the virus (McNeil & Donald, 2009). However, the number of the infected people became overwhelmingly higher around the world, as some health centers in some regions became overwhelmed by a large number of patients. In the US-Mexico border community, public health officers from county health officials and the school of public health worked closely to establish a simple, surveillance system to check the influenza pandemic as it crossed the Texas border. Monitoring was the principal objective of the public health practitioners during the 2009 flu pandemic (McCormick, et al., 2010).

The coded national and state preparedness schemes were proved cumbersome at the local level. Therefore, there a need for a practical and straightforward real-time monitoring and response system, partially by modifying the national preparedness plans and implementing them immediately (McCormick, et al., 2010). Data analyses were conducted daily, including geographical information system tracking of issues and school and daycare reports on absences were useful in projecting the extent of influenza spread. They were helpful in local monitoring, deciding on the courses of action and targeting engagements. These simple methods gave grounds and could be used even at the national level for pandemic response.

However, the local and national response systems could not fully contain the outbreak as well as treat the patients, and therefore the WHO had to intervene to declare the disease a global emergency (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). Other organizations such as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the US provided much support in surveillance and control of the pandemic. CDC worked closely with the local and national animal and human health officers and epidemiological surveillance by tracking any contacts of all ill people to determine the source of the infection.

Social Attitudes, Issues of Race, Class, and Gender Influence on the 2009 Flu Pandemic Response

The national response in different countries affected was slow due to lack of sufficient resources as well as the social attitudes towards illnesses. The spread of the disease was from Veracruz to other parts of the world, and the detection proved that the condition had been in existence before the laboratory test results were known. This implied that the disease had been spreading without the public health officers’ knowledge- which might have been contributed by the social negligence due to the social status of the local people.

The air travelers from the influenza pandemic struck areas had more knowledge about the sting of the disease (Sharangpani, Boulton, Wells, & Kim, 2011). Most travelers considered the flu pandemic a threat and could, therefore, take protective measures as compared to those who did not travel. Individuals with high education levels as well as in more upper social class might have had access to information. Knowledge was associated with acceptance of the health directions and understanding the influenza pandemic would be related to better understanding of the recommendations from the public health officials.

Communication was critical during the 2009 H1N1 response, but according to Lin, Savoia, Agboola, and Viswanath (2014), the information communicated would reach the more educated and those connected to the community workers, which affected compliance to the health recommendations. There were also racial disparities in which the communication was conducted, as in some countries priorities would be given to a particular group of people, which further affected the matter (Lin, Savoia, Agboola, & Viswanath, 2014).

Barriers to Healthcare Services for 2009 Flu Pandemic Victims

During the 2009 flu pandemic, the primary challenge was the patient management which fell on the primary care physicians (PCP), as they were at the core in implementing the pandemic plans (Kunin, Engelhard, Thomas, Ashworth, & Piterman, 2015). When the WHO declared the pandemic as a matter of global concern, most countries employed strategies that would delay the appearance of the virus and control its spread. The role of the primary care physicians was to test and treat all suspected cases- a role which remained until the decline of the pandemic. The primary barrier to the provision of healthcare service was the pace by which the virus was spreading. The virus could be spread like any other flu, that is, through air contact, which explained why the number of patients would increase at overwhelming rates (WHO, 2010). This would compromise the quality of healthcare to the patients- as well exposing the healthcare providers.

Another challenge that barred efficient handling of the disease was the fact that there was the late detection of the disease. This would mean that before the first case went public, most people had already been affected, and when people started storming for the healthcare, the facilities were stretched which would drain the international support resources (WHO, 2010). Therefore, the overflow of the patients in the health facilities had an impact on the quality of services provided.

The Role of International and Altruistic Organizations

Some of the major international bodies that worked in response to the 2009 flu pandemic were WHO and CDC, among others who could give humanitarian assistance during the crisis. Therefore, the international and altruistic groups helped bolster the local and national health systems of the affected regions by providing medical and protective tools, establishing community care centers, and ensuring that vaccines reached all people despite their geographical location. Thus, to ensure safe and efficient delivery, the societies collaborated with the national authorities to reduce the pandemic. The organizations also offered training to the health practitioners on how to handle contagious diseases such as H1N1 (WHO, 2010). The personnel worked in high-transmission areas and helped the authorities in developing strategies to treat the virus as well as restore the health clinic to normal operations. Therefore, the international organizations were directly involved in treatment and prevention of the reduction of H1N1.

The Role of the Professional Nurse

Nurses play a crucial role in disaster preparedness at all levels from local to international. They plan, provide direct care, train communities, and engage the patients during disasters. The nurses offer incredible services through all the phases ranging from responding to an emergency to recovery phase (WHO, 2010). During the 2009 flu pandemic, local, national, and international nurses were engaged in disaster evaluation, response, and treatment of the patients and helping the society through the recovery process.

The critical functions of the professional nurses during the 2009 flu pandemic centered between achieving optimal public health through giving preventive care as well as offering safe, therapeutic, and active healing treatment to achieve optimum health (California Nurses Association, 2009). They would secure the reporting by the non-public centers of suspect H1N1 cases to the local public health unit. Further, would ensure that hospitals are equipped with seasonal H1N1 vaccines to prevent the virus from reemerging and spreading.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the fast worldwide response to the 2009 flu pandemic was the highlight of the global event because nurses and other healthcare professionals trampled negative social attitudes and issues of race and class. Therefore, it is necessary for organizations and hospitals to afford professional nurses and other healthcare workers to join global agencies in providing healthcare during health crises. The pandemic provided an avenue where the Non-Governmental Organizations could work with local authorities to formulate emergency response plans to solve global event.

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