. The information-processing of memory is one of the best-known models in all of psychology. Describe the three stages of memory and their characteristics. Explain how the three-stage model of memory might explain the famous serial position effect.
2. What is iconic memory? Describe what it is and how it works. Be sure to include a description of Sperling’s experiment, which was used to demonstrate and investigate iconic memory.
3. What is meant by a flashbulb memory? Describe its characteristics. Give an example that is well-known. Some psychologists are not impressed by these well-known examples of this phenomenon. What are some of the criticisms of the idea of flashbulb memory?
4. Let’s say you are a defense attorney and are defending a client on a murder charge. The victim was found in a dark alley. A witness had a glimpse of a shadowy figure standing over the body. The police thoroughly interrogate the witness and arrest a young man. The man has an alibi. There is no other evidence against him, except that of the witness. The witness is positive. What factors may lead you to doubt this strong testimony of the witness? Pretend you are the defense attorney and, with your knowledge of the problems with eyewitness testimony and memory, tell the jury why they should be doubtful of the witness.
5. The other day, you had to remember some items for an important exam. You are sure you studied them and knew them before you entered the classroom. However, you drew a blank when you took the test. What happened? Why might you not have remembered them? What might you have done to avoid this?