Describe the meaning of flashbulb memory and its characteristics.

. The information-processing of memory is one of the best-known models in all of  psychology. Describe the three stages of memory and their characteristics.  Explain how the three-stage model of memory might explain the famous serial  position effect.

2. What is iconic memory? Describe what it is and how it works. Be sure to include  a description of Sperling’s experiment, which was used to demonstrate and  investigate iconic memory.

3. What is meant by a flashbulb memory? Describe its characteristics. Give an  example that is well-known. Some psychologists are not impressed by these  well-known examples of this phenomenon. What are some of the criticisms of the  idea of flashbulb memory?

4. Let’s say you are a defense attorney and are defending a client on a murder  charge. The victim was found in a dark alley. A witness had a glimpse of a  shadowy figure standing over the body. The police thoroughly interrogate the  witness and arrest a young man. The man has an alibi. There is no other  evidence against him, except that of the witness. The witness is positive. What  factors may lead you to doubt this strong testimony of the witness? Pretend you  are the defense attorney and, with your knowledge of the problems with  eyewitness testimony and memory, tell the jury why they should be doubtful of  the witness.

5. The other day, you had to remember some items for an important exam. You are  sure you studied them and knew them before you entered the classroom.  However, you drew a blank when you took the test. What happened? Why might  you not have remembered them? What might you have done to avoid this?