Why did Louis Napoleon’s argument to the French people have such a strong popular appeal? What are the similarities in the practice of Realpolitik by Louis Napoleon and Otto von Bismarck? What are the noticeable differences in their two approaches? What can you learn about Realpolitikfrom the two selections?
Why did Garibaldi become such a national hero to the Italian people? How does Garibaldi’s comportment as a political and military leader prefigure the conduct of later revolutionary leaders and military activists?
What changes did Tsar Alexander II’s emancipation of the serfs initiate in Russia? What effect did Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation” have on the Southern “armed rebellion?” What reason did each leader give for his action?