Discuss who should receive the surveillance reports, what should be reported, how often the report should be prepared, and resources to support that surveillance program

    1. he data collected and the processes for collecting the data must be consistent across patients or other referents. This objective can be accomplished by using a standardized data collection tool.
    2. The data should be collected in a concise format that will minimize transcribing errors and facilitate easy data entry and analysis.
    3. Avoid two pitfalls when developing a data collection tool: be sure to minimize the entry of free text (recording data as text or statements is labor intensive and increases opportunity for error); and be sure to not expect the data collectors to judge on whether outcome meets the criteria or whether an outcome was iatrogenic (these judgments are subjective and causation is better determined through scientific studies).
    4. Note the sources of the data to be collected, data storage, and retrieval.
  1. Describe the event-specific data.
    1. Keep in mind that the surveillance program must convert event-specific data into rates. For example, the frequency of new conditions or accidents can be reported as cumulative incidence (event of interest for 100 admissions per unit of time [month, year]) or reported as incidence density (event of interest per 1,000 patient-days). Rates of procedure-related adverse events or outcomes can be reported as cumulative incidence and reported as postoperative surgical site infection rates (events/100 procedures/unit of time [month, year]). If physician-specific rates are reported, data should be coded to maintain confidentiality. The rates of medication-related adverse outcomes can be reported as cumulative incidence or incidence density (event of interest/10,000 doses administered/unit time).
  2. Discuss who should receive the surveillance reports, what should be reported, how often the report should be prepared, and resources to support that surveillance program (support staff).
  3. In the concluding paragraph, include two additional long-range objectives of the surveillance program.
    1. How the surveillance indicators will be assessed for validity, sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, consistency of data collection across surveillance staff (reliability)
    2. How the cost-effectiveness will be demonstrated that it improves the quality and decreases the cost of healthcare (this can be accomplished by documenting that the costs saved by reducing adverse outcomes exceeds the costs of the surveillance program).