1-Discuss the factors that shape attitudes towards police and policing.
2- Discuss the history of policing in Australia.
3- Discuss third-party policing.
4- Discuss plural policing.
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Factors which Shape Attitude towards Police and Policing
There are different factors shaping the attitude towards the police and the policing activities in Australia. The major role of the police department is the maintenance of the law and order according to the mandate entrusted to the police department. The diversity of attitudes is accordance to different types of police departments which are present in Australia. The various departments of police in Australia include; the Western Australia Police, the New South Wales Police Force, the Victoria Police, the Queensland Police Service, Tasmania Police, the Northern Territory Police and the South Australia Police.
The services offered by the police are of great concern to the public of Australia. The satisfaction of the service delivery is also of great essentiality to the citizens. However, the extent of satisfaction with the policing and the conduct of the police officers in the country highly depends on the nature of the prior experience with the police officers. As such, the trust of the public towards the policing services is highly dependent on the earlier encounter of the public with the police.
Furthermore, the perception of the policing and the police officers is highly shaped by the initiator of the encounter. For example, where a member of the public seeks the help from the police, satisfaction from the services is highly experienced. However, when the police initiate the policing activity, the affected people may be dissatisfied with the services, especially where excessive force is used on the people.
Finally, the attitude towards the perception of the
policing activities and the police is shaped by the experience of others with
the police. If satisfaction was gained, the perception is positive. Where
dissatisfaction was experienced then the trust towards the services offered by
the policing department also decline. Therefore, the level of satisfaction and
the encounter with the police are the main drivers of the perception towards
the police and policing.
The History of Policing in Australia
Policing was firstly formalized by Robert Peel. He formulated the Metropolitan Police in Australia in 1829 through the basis of the Metropolitan Police Act in Australia. At that time, the police constables were referred to as the Bobbies or the Peelers. The early establishment of policing in the country remained even after the metropolitan police establishment. Some of this police-like establishment included the runners, who were also, referred to as the Bow streets patrols, established in 1749. Additionally, the marine police, which was started in 1798, was not dissolved when Robert Peel started the metropolitan police.
In 1839, the metropolitan police experienced resistance from the City of London Police which was formulated in the same year. The reconciliation of the two police forces was hindered by factors such as failure of the achievement of the freedom of action which is highly valued in the society. The failure was associated with failure to exclude interference with the societal affairs. The modern police force which was formulated by Peeler is mainly focused on the elimination of crime. Notably, crime and its prevention are the main focus of the policing service delivery.
Remarkably, the police officers are governed by a particular principle. According to the principle, the police officers are citizens of the country who are entrusted with the role of policing their fellow citizens on the basis of consent. Therefore, since the establishment of the police in Australia, the main responsibility has always been the execution of the police power while seeking the common consent of the Australians.
Finally, the Peelian principle of 1829 is based on the fact that policing departmental services depend on the approval of the public. The police officers have the responsibility of maintaining the public respect through their actions and behaviors.
Third Party Policing
Third-party policing goes beyond the main focus of the police as crime controllers and extends to solving the community problems. There are different eras of policing, including the political era, the professionalization era which involves reforms and the era of solving the problems of the community. Furthermore, the uncertainty era and the Homeland Security Era constitute to the third party policing.
The political era has various characteristics. For example, the main source of legitimacy is the political realm of Australia, hence the name; political policing era. According to the era, the primary functions of the police are controlling crimes, maintaining order and the social services to the community. The political era is often formal and involves intimacy of the relationship between the police and the environment. The foot patrol is the principle through which the police in the political era acquire both the political and the community satisfaction.
Professionalization era on the other hand is centralized and the crime control is governed by law as well as the professionalism. Car patrols are mainly depended upon as the principle of controlling crime while maintaining a professional relationship between the police and the environment. The community problem solving era on the other hand, is based on professionalism, the community and the law. The era involves prevention and control of crime as well as offering solutions to community problems. Consultations are depended upon in the era due to the decentralized nature. The community problem-solving era focuses majorly on the satisfaction of the community and the indicators of the quality of life through crime control. Furthermore, the community problem-solving era is anchored on the principle of foot patrol but mainly on the problem solving. Therefore, the third party policing focuses on crime prevention through various principles to increase the community satisfaction.
Plural policing in Australia was established in the early 1990s. Plural policing involves various actors in the policing activities. As such, the police-sponsored policing is not the only policing power in operation. The main focus of the plural policing is the enforcement of roles through the authority exercise. There are hence different kinds of the plural police, including the public police, the anti-crime agencies, the private and the public police activities, the anti-corruption agencies, the local governments as well as the regulatory agencies. Furthermore, the voluntary groups which lead to the law enforcement are also part of the plural policing.
All the above kinds of policing are different in various aspects including the roles. Firstly, the public and private security police are different. The private sector is contracted by individuals or companies who are private. The public security service agency on the other hand is hired by the government agencies directly or indirectly. The two departments are oriented on the security of the people, and thus asset-oriented.
The anti-crime agencies focus on the national crimes. The anti-corruption agencies on the other hand, are centered on the matters pertaining corruption affecting the country. Furthermore, there are coordination and facilitation police agencies, which collate the statistics pertaining crimes to increase the accountability. Additionally, the regulatory agencies are the overseers of the public functions in order to communicate the relevant regulations. The regulatory agencies further educate the relevant agencies on the regulations. Besides, the local governments are members of plural police and have the role in general prevention of crimes.
Finally, the regulatory groups are composed of the vigilante mobs, who point out the negative aspect of the society. For instance, the members of neighborhood can point out the negative aspects in their location. Therefore, plural policing is essential for the well-being of the society in all aspects.