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DECLARATIONS

We declare that:

  1. The content of this group assignment is a product of our own investigative research assignment and corresponding acknowledgement has been drawn to give credit to the owners of both printed and electronic content sources by relevant citations, references and the bibliography.
  2. Unless our group assignment has been confirmed as confidential, we agree to an entire electronic copy or parts of the group assignment to being displayed on notice board. In case they are fond appropriate, the learners to come can be allowed to view at what the past students did.  
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SIGNED: ……………………………………………………………………………… 

DATE: ………………………………………………………………………………….

Table of Contents

DECLARATIONS. 2

Executive Summary. 4

Introduction. 5

Background of the Organization. 5

Current initiatives being undertaken. 5

Source the raw materials sustainable. 4

Reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from transport 5

Reduce waste in production. 5

Reduce the amount of water used in the production process: 6

Analysis of the data and information. 6

Discussion of the findings and implication for managers. 11

Reference List 19

Appendix. 21

Executive Summary

When research the green supply chain was carried out by the group, Unilever was identified as a good example of green supply chain because it  is always concerned about the sustainable development of society and the environment and will complete 100 % sustainable raw material procurement. Unilever is a multinational company that is genuinely committed to significantly reducing adverse environmental impacts of its products, ensuring that all raw materials are sustainable, and actively collaborating with the Index PHP Engineer (IPE). The company is also focusing on green innovation because they must face the impact of products on the environment and they are also relying on sustainable innovation to reduce the side effects of production and waste of resources; this part will be mentioned in the report.

Through reduction of water usage, the company helps in reducing the energy needed to pump the water from its original sources to where it should be disposed. It also reduces the hot water used, which help in reduction of the energy needed to heat it as well. Water being a scarce commodity in some of the parts within the United States, the firm in collaboration with the manufacturers will help in controlling its usage so that it fits the high population of the US with everyone getting the scarce natural resource (Thorlakson, Hainmueller and Lambin, 2018 p.36) In so doing, the organization aims at installing new equipment that helps in water wastage. Also, it focuses on modifying manufacturing processes so that less water can be used to satisfy the needs of the growing population. In this regard, there will be controlled water usage and a lot of water will be recaptured and reused for other commercial purposes.

Background of the Organization

Current Initiatives Being Undertaken

a)      Source the raw materials sustainable

  1. Sustainably sourcing to the highest standards from the network of suppliers.
  2. Series of improvement to bring about more driving change.
  3. Creating awareness among the consumers.
  4. Acting as role models in the agricultural sector.
  5. Creating advancement in the palm oil and tea industry.
  6. Defending biodiversity.

b)      Reducing emission of gases from the warehouse

            It is projected that by the year 2020, there would be a great difference in the world global logistics when compared to 2010. Notably, such improvements will be mostly realized in terms of a reduction in carbon emissions gained from improvements on logistical operations of major industry players. Unilever will be a position of reducing the mileage through the usage of reduced emission from vehicles. The organization is also planning to increase the usage of alternative means of transportation that complies with the goals of reducing carbon emissions.  The company is also planning to improve the efficiency of the warehouse and make it more productive.

c)      Reduce waste in production

        i.            Biomass burner

Compress straw, peanut shells, etc. into biofuels

Improve traditional coal stoves to biofuel burners, approaching 100% combustion

  1. Product packaging PVC substitute

Outer packaging material replaces PVC shrink film with self-adhesive label

Outer Packaging Material Replaces PVC Shrink Film by PET Shrink Film/EVA Material

d)     Reduce the amount of water used in the production process

  1. New factory Reduces the amount of water used in the laundry process
  2. Less water products
  3. Reduce agricultural water use

Analysis of the Data and Information

Data gathered from the respondents were compared and differentiated to get a more profound understanding of what comprises of a supply chain system and the related difficulties in the relationship of green coordination execution at Unilever. Regression analysis was carried out using  the estimation of the values of the two factors X and Y to build up a representation that was helpful for foreseeing the worth of the reliant changeable Y for given values of X. Data acquired from the investigation was in quantitative shape and subjective examinations in view of the experience of individual members. In numerical shape, illustrative statistics to outline the example of discoveries was used. Descriptive statistics incorporated a measure of focal inclination that is the mean.

As a company, Unilever has a high discount reduction to the clients which enable them to purchase more goods and be more aggressive to merge their competitors. The organization provides quality services that provide long lasting and competitive advantages to its customers. In this regard, the aim of the organization is to provide quality stock at fair and reasonable prices. In so doing, the company calculates the average price by calculating the simple quality score based on each of the fundamental factors that affect production. In this precept, some of the factors looked at here are the competitive advantages, market availability the help in the selling of the products, market shares which can be defendable, average prices of the products that can enable the clients to stock for more. The company also looks at the assets that are used to raise the profit margin.  The quality of goods produced determines the market competition level, when they are of high quality; there are high profits which can be raised from the market and vice versa (Hassini, Surti and Searcy, 2012). On the other hand, the company will also have a challenge since it creates a platform for the production of more quality products.  When the products are likened by the clients, there will be a high percentage of reimbursement of the initial capital that was invested in the production (Wong, 2013 p.13). The graph below shows the percentage of the invested capital return over a number of years and how it has been calculated against other related and competing company.

Image result for graphs showing standard deviation at the unilever company
Objectives Data Collected Method Analysis Done
Establish the motivating factors influencing the adoption of green supply chain at Unilever Primary data from questionnaire Secondary data from supply chain manuals, records and reports Questionnaire Interview Observation Regression Analysis Standard Deviation Mean Frequency (Mode, Median)
Determine the relationship between the motivating factors and green supply chain at Unilever Primary data from questionnaire Secondary data from supply chain manuals, records and reports Questionnaire Interview Observation Regression Analysis Standard Deviation Mean Frequency (Mode, Median)
Establish the Challenges facing the implementation of green supply chain at Unilever Primary data from questionnaire Secondary data from supply chain manuals, records and reports Questionnaire Interview Observation Regression Analysis Standard Deviation Mean Frequency (Mode, Median)

Figure 1: Summary of Data collection and Analysis

This table presents the data analysis results, analytic interpretation and discussions. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) with the main analysis tools being descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) besides regression analysis.

The study focused on 12 management and major operations staff at Unilever. The response rate was as shown in Table 2 below.

Table 1: Response Rate

Table 2: Distribution of respondents by gender

Table 3: Descriptive statistics of the rate of adoption by top management

From Table 3 above, all parameters of the Company’s top management support were rated highly with positivity of top managers being rated highest (mean, 4.17) and commitment to strategic direction being rated lowest (mean 3.83). This indicates that there is a greater likelihood of top management getting involved and supporting the adoption of green supply chain policies and strategies. These findings are in line with those of (Mathews and Tan, 2011) who established that top management overall supports the strategy of the organization. However, it differs with the purpose of a strategy, enables the Company to keep focused and be able to keep track on the approaches that can make it realize the set objectives (Johnson, Coles and Whittinson, 2009 p.67). The Pearson’s Correlation analysis was done to analyze the manner in which top management support and green supply chain performance relate and the results obtained are presented in Table 4 below.

Table 4: Pearson’s Correlation analysis

Figure 2: Analytic overview of the survey results

Table 5:

Discussion of the Findings and Implication for Managers

Results from Table 4 above uncover that there is a significance in the good rapport realized in the top administration support and green logistics execution (r = .645, P-value < 0.05). This suggests top administration support impacts green logistics execution at Unilever Company. The top administration support for green logistics execution was an urging element to the lower unit of staff and to the other partners; this depicted how Unilever was committed on the issues of green logistics in the supply chain administration (Mathews and Tan, 2011 pp.240). The investigation tried to inspect the impact of ICT on green logistics execution at Unilever Company. The respondents were solicited to rate their levels from concurrence with different inquiries in regards to ICT at Unilever. The mean appraisals were registered and are as appeared in Table 6 below.

Table 6: Organizational Communication

In view of regression coefficients results the regression equation can be composed as takes after;

Y = – 2.597+ .583 X1 + .816 X2 – .315X3 +.409 X4e

Regression analysis points out the manner in which, officials bolster, ICT, correspondence and organizational culture anticipate green logistics execution. Furthermore, ICT is a superior indicator of green logistics execution (beta = 0.816) trailed by top management bolster (beta = 0.583) and organizational culture (beta = .409).

 Correspondence adversely impact green logistics execution (beta = – .315). The above results recommend that if the Unilever Company is to accomplish wanted green logistics execution, it has to put more focus on ICT, management bolster, and organizational culture. The discoveries additionally demonstrate that lone top management bolsters ICT were observed to be factually noteworthy (p<.05). Correspondence and Organizational Culture did not have a factually huge association with Green Logistics Performance.

The need to execute the green logistics execution was there; however, how the communication was to be made compelling had not been legitimately set up. The investigation tried to analyze the impact of organizational culture on green logistics execution at Unilever Company (Jiao and Boons, 2014 pp.15). The respondents were solicited to rate their levels from concurrence with different inquiries in regards to organizational culture. The mean appraisals were registered and are as appeared in Table 7 below.

Table 7: Organizational Culture

Pearson’s Correlation investigation was completed to analyze the relationship between organizational culture and green strategic execution and the outcomes got are introduced in Table 5 above.

            The most important factor  established  was that  the leadership of managers improves selection of supply chain methodologies (mean, 3.41); trailed by the presence of predominant values, convictions and standards (mean, 3.33) with the slightest evaluated being valued by customers and staff on the reception of supply chain procedures (mean, 3.0). These findings infer that the organizational culture at Unilever is supportive just to a direct degree towards the reception of green supply chain techniques, subsequently the requirement for enhanced parts of organizational culture inside the company. Organizational cultures were the values and the activities that were done, which greatly contributed to the well being of Unilever (Genovese et al., 2017 pp.345). It involves the desires of the organizations and the management framework that for time immemorial have contributed to the growth of the organization. In addition, it also entails the future prospects that the company should achieve within the given time and appropriate approaches required to realize the plan s set.  

The analysis of data at Unilever found that Unilever has a high level of top management inclusion and support towards the selection of green logistics supply chain systems. Further, it was built up that Unilever has a decent ICT structure; however, it needs to enhance a few angles incorporating coordination of innovation with customers and effectiveness in data quality. This is in concurrence with Mason (2000) who expresses that data innovation has great impact on supply chain since it adds the value of the assets in the organization. In this regard, the profit turn out becomes so high.

Communication was evaluated normally with the convenience of communication on change and advancement of incorporating communications design being particular regions that need prompt consideration. This differences the findings by Green and Miles (1997) that communication is progressively viewed as a fundamental piece of business know-how and a basic business instrument, and also a key device of senior management of worldwide organizations (Ganesha & Harrison, 1995 p.95). Further, it was discovered that the organizational culture at Unilever is supportive just to a direct degree towards the reception of green supply chain methodologies. This harmonizes with ponders by Ganesha and Harrison (1995) who found that effective associations may have built up a corporate culture or an arrangement of convictions and practices that they use to clarify a company’s prosperity.

Top management support, and especially ICT was found to have a measurably significant relationship with green logistics execution. Then again, communication and organizational culture did not significantly impact green logistics execution. The principal challenges confronting the usage of green logistics methodologies incorporated the cost of green items; changing first cost attitude and deficient natural data, assessing shrouded expenses and issues in teaching partners on the significance of green logistics.

This compares with Angel del Brio and Junquera (2003) who outlined the factors affecting appropriation of ecological development, for example, absence of little and medium measured ventures advancement as for natural technique ,restricted monetary assets, the kind of organizational structure, little impact of the vital adjustment fitness against changes in the undertakings, managers’ absence of ecological preparing and here and now introduction, staffs’ absence of ecological mindfulness and preparing, the status of the natural issues in the company, these endeavors’ lower capacities to acquire developments, and their absence of relationships with outside partners.

Effect of environmental management competitive pressure from Unilever’s main competitors on internal integration of green product development

The Unilever’s hypothetical model and exact results give bits of knowledge into the three measurements of green supply chain coordination and green supply chain development setting (Flynn et al., 2010 p.89). The Unilever results offer proof of the indicated effects of the interior, provider and client coordination of green item advancement on natural development results. Past investigations have shown the positive effects of inner reconciliation on conveyance and quality (Dentoni, Bitzer and Pascucci, 2016) and creation cost and generation adaptability. The Unilever results fortify the contention for the need to evacuate utilitarian hindrances inside and crosswise over organizational limits to make both incremental and radical natural development.

The Unilever’s annual reports and archived supply chain records give additional proof of how provider and client coordination of green item improvement affect both incremental and radical green supply chain advancement (Mathews and Tan, 2011). While past investigations have exhibited the positive effect of outside combination on activities management execution (Mathews and Tan, 2011) and item advancement our results show that providers and clients are vital wellsprings of development who can help enhance the central Unilever’s green item improvement exercises through the assistance of data trade, errand coordination, and cross-fringe critical thinking schedules.

Figure 3: Distribution of response on the implementation of Green Supply chain at Unilever

The green supply chain of Unilever further adds to the literature by looking at both incremental green supply chain development and radical natural advancement. We additionally give other exceptionally intriguing findings at Unilever that: 1) the effect of inward coordination of green item improvement on radical natural advancement is considerably more grounded than those of provider combination and inside joining of green item advancement; and 2) the effects of provider integration and inner mix of green item advancement on incremental green supply chain development are substantially more grounded than that of client reconciliation of green item improvement (Clay, 2013). Normally, incremental advancement may include less exertion and assets (time, money related, or human asset) than radical development and along these lines if the association has restricted capital and capacity, they can work inside or coordinate with their providers to influence minor enhancements or basic alterations in existing green items and green supply chain management to process.

Then again, our findings feature the significance of building client joining limit in creating radical green supply chain advancement. For companies with substantive capital and ability, creating radical natural development would be a superior decision for them (Gold, Seuring and Beske, 2010 pp.230). This is on the grounds that radical natural development speaks to the central change in green supply chain items and procedures which give more noteworthy green supply chain advantages to society and in this manner organizations can upgrade their picture of a ‘green pioneer’ in the market. Also, these organizations can charge premium costs when propelling radical green supply chain advancement items and therefore accomplish more prominent benefits. This is like the separation technique recommended by Porter (1990). With a specific end goal to acquire those focused advantages from radical natural advancement, Unilever’s can include their clients at the beginning time and create green item all things considered.

The supply chain integration literature proposes the execution of the outer mix between clients and providers. Unilever top management has to seek interior reconciliation exercise since it goes about as establishment to give an essential experience of learning sharing and cooperating (Sarkis, Zhu and Lai, 2011 pp.15). In this way, the findings contend that aggressive weight from rivals drives the appropriation of interior coordination; after that, the outside clients and providers motivates firms to advocate for improvement of incremental and radical green supply chain advancement hence promoting green supply chain strategies.

Reference List

Clay, J., 2013. World agriculture and the environment: a commodity-by-commodity guide to impacts and practices. Island Press.

Dentoni, D., Bitzer, V. and Pascucci, S., 2016. Cross-sector partnerships and the co-creation of dynamic capabilities for stakeholder orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 135(1), pp.35-53.

Ganesha, R. & Harrison, T. (1995). Environmental Supply Chain Management. Center for Advanced Purchasing Studies, Tempe, AZ.

Genovese, A., Acquaye, A.A., Figueroa, A. and Koh, S.L., 2017. Sustainable supply chain management and the transition towards a circular economy: Evidence and some applications. Omega66, pp.344-357.

Gold, S., Seuring, S. and Beske, P., 2010. Sustainable supply chain management and inter‐organizational             resources: a literature review. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management17(4), pp.230-245.

Green, K. & Miles, I. (1997). A Clean Break from Corporate to Sustainable Technological Regimes in Business and the Environment.

Hassini, E., Surti, C. and Searcy, C., 2012. A literature review and a case study of sustainable supply chains with a focus on metrics. International Journal of Production Economics140(1), pp.69-82.

Jeremy, F. & Shapiro, G. (2001). Modeling the Supply Chain. Duxbury Thomson Learning.

Jiao, W. and Boons, F., 2014. Toward a research agenda for policy intervention and facilitation to enhance industrial symbiosis based on a comprehensive literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production67, pp.14-25.

Jones, H. (1997). Material Management in Decentralized Supply Chains. Operations Research, 41(5), 835-847.

Klassen, R. & Johnson, P. F. (2005). The Green Supply Chain in Understanding Supply Chains.

Mason, J. (2000). Lean and Green: Industrial Engineering Methods are Natural Stepping-Stones to Green Engineering. Journal of Industrial Engineer: IE, 9(41), 24-29.

Mathews, J.A. and Tan, H., 2011. Progress toward a circular economy in China. Journal of industrial ecology15(3), pp.435-457.

Michael, B. Julian, A. Allan, W & Marzena, P. (2007). Progress in Industrial Ecology: An International Journal, 1(4), 397 – 410.

Sarkis, J., Zhu, Q. and Lai, K.H., 2011. An organizational theoretic review of green supply chain management literature. International Journal of Production Economics130(1), pp.1-15.

Thorlakson, T., Hainmueller, J. and Lambin, E.F., 2018. Improving environmental practices in agricultural supply chains: The role of company-led standards. Global Environmental Change, 48, pp.32-42.

Wong, Z.Y., 2013. Progress in industrial ecology: an international journal. Progress in Industrial Ecology8(1/2), pp.1-3.

Appendix

Figure 4: Questionnare-2

Figure 5: Survey Results

Figure 6: Survey Results-2

Figure 7: Results Summary

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