ESSAY #1 – OUTLINE/STUDY GUIDE Both Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X made unique and lasting contributions to the Civil Rights Movement in America, and beyond. According to Cone, “Malcolm and Martin came from different backgrounds of class, familial support, political tradition, geography, religious tradition, and education” (p. 57). In this essay, based on Cone and other class texts, lectures, and discussions, analyze the following: 1. The influence of King’s upbringing in the creation of his American “Dream” 2 The influence of Malcolm’s upbringing in the creation of his American “Nightmare” 3. The evolution of their ideologies about social activism, and their legacies. Paragraph 1 – King’s “Dream” a. Discuss how King’s “Dream” was influenced by his upbringing (secure family life, father, southern roots, socio-economic status, education) b.Discuss how religion influenced King’s “Dream” (Chrisitanity-Southern Baptist/non violence; love thy brother, etc.) c.Discuss how King’s views on White America (integrationalist – live in harmony with dominant White American society, equality) Paragraph 2 – Malcolm’s “Nightmare” a.Discuss how Malcolm’s “Nightmare” was influenced by his upbringing (insecure family,father, innercity roots; socio-economic status, lack of education) b.Discuss how religion influenced Malcolm’s “Nightmare” (NOI/self defense, white devils, black power, etc.) c.Discuss Malcolm’s views on White America (nationalist – live separate from dominant White American society) Paragraph 3 – Martin and Malcolm – “Two Roads” a.Discuss King’s evolution in social activism (anti-war; anti-classism, workers rights) b.Discuss Malcolm’s evolution in social activism (trip to Mecca – Sunni Islam; break with NOI; moving toward more inclusive action) c.Discuss the legacies both share in the civil rights movement. (both evolved toward global human rights, seeking justice; freedom; respect; and empowerment of black americans) ESSAY #2: In this course, we have explored cultural, spiritual and political roles of religion in African American culture. We have examined the arc of syncretism and transculturation from indigenous African cosmologies to religion during slavery in North America, ending with religious worldviews that shaped Martin Luther King, Jr and Malcolm X during the civil rights movement. In this essay, based class texts, lectures, and discussions, analyze the following: 1. Define and discuss the concepts of religion, syncretism and transculturalism. 2. Discuss one example of how slaves in North America incorporated indigenous African religion into their forced Christian practices. 3. Discuss how religion played a role in shaping the worldviews of MLK and MX during the Civil Rights Era. Required Texts: Cone, James. (1991). Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or a Nightmare. Dennis, Denise. (1984). Black History for Beginners Raboteau, Albert J. (2001). Canaan Land: A Religious History of African Americans.