Professional Custom Accounting Papers: What is Being Done About “Bad” Ozone?
TOP: The “good” ozone layer in the stratosphere protects life on Earth from the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays.
BOTTOM: “Bad” ozone at ground-level is harmful to breathe and damages crops, trees, and other vegetation.
For air program information, contact your Regional EPA Office:
…or visit EPA’s website at http://www.epa.gov/air
PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER
United States Environmental Protection Agency
EPA-451/K-03-001 June 2003
Office of Air and Radiation MC6101A 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20460
about the cover…
a c t i o n s y o u c a n t a k e
High-Altitude “Good” Ozone
• Protect yourself against sunburn. When the UV Index is “high” or “very high”: Limit outdoor activities between 10 am and 4 pm, when the sun is most intense. Twenty minutes before going outside, liberally apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of at least 15. Reapply every two hours or after swimming or sweating. For UV Index forecasts, check local media reports or visit: www.epa.gov/sunwise/uvindex.html
• Use approved refrigerants in air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. Make sure technicians that work on your car or home air conditioners or refrigerator are certified to recover the refrigerant. Repair leaky air conditioning units before refilling them.
Ground-Level “Bad” Ozone
• Check the air quality forecast in your area. At times when the Air Quality Index (AQI) is forecast to be unhealthy, limit physical exertion outdoors. In many places, ozone peaks in mid-afternoon to early evening. Change the time of day of strenuous outdoor activity to avoid these hours, or reduce the intensity of the activity. For AQI forecasts, check your local media reports or visit: www.epa.gov/airnow
• Help your local electric utilities reduce ozone air pollution by conserving energy at home and the office. Consider setting your thermostat a little higher in the summer. Participate in your local utilities’ load-sharing and energy conservation programs.
• Reduce air pollution from cars, trucks, gas-powered lawn and garden equipment, boats and other engines by keeping equipment properly tuned and maintained. During the summer, fill your gas tank during the cooler evening hours and be careful not to spill gasoline. Reduce driving, carpool, use public transportation, walk, or bicycle to reduce ozone pollution, especially on hot summer days.
• Use household and garden chemicals wisely. Use low VOC paints and solvents. And be sure to read labels for proper use and disposal.
EPA Headquarters (202) 564-7400
Region 1 – (617) 918-1660 www.epa.gov/region1/
Region 2 – (212) 637-4249 www.epa.gov/region2/
Region 4 – (404) 562-9077 www.epa.gov/region4/
Region 6 – (214) 665-7229 www.epa.gov/region6/
Region 7 – (913) 551-7020 www.epa.gov/region7/
Region 5 – (312) 353-2211 www.epa.gov/region5/
Region 8 – (800) 227-8917 www.epa.gov/region8/
Region 10 – (206) 553-1505 www.epa.gov/region10/
Region 9 – (415) 947-8715 www.epa.gov/region9/
Region 3 – (215) 814-2100 www.epa.gov/region3/
All other sources
Industrial/ Commercial/ Residential
Sources of NOx
b a d n e a r b y
Too little there… Many popular consumer
products like air conditioners and
refrigerators involve CFCs or halons
during either manufacture or use. Over
time, these chemicals damage the earth’s
protective ozone layer.
g o o d u p h i g h
Too much here… Cars, trucks, power plants and
factories all emit air pollution that forms ground-
level ozone, a primary component of smog.
We live with ozone every day. It can protect life on earth or harm it, but
we have the power to influence ozone’s impact by the way we live.
What is Ozone?
Ozone is a gas that occurs both in the Earth’s upper atmosphere and at ground level. Ozone can be “good” or “bad” for your health and the environment, depending on its location in the atmosphere.
How Can Ozone Be Both Good and Bad?
Ozone occurs in two layers of the atmosphere. The layer closest to the Earth’s surface is the troposphere. Here, ground- level or “bad” ozone is an air pollutant that is harmful to breathe and it damages crops, trees and other vegetation. It is a main ingredient of urban smog. The troposphere generally extends to a level about 6 miles up, where it meets the second layer, the stratosphere. The stratosphere or “good” ozone layer extends upward from about 6 to 30 miles and protects life on Earth from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays.
What is Happening to the “Good” Ozone Layer?
Ozone is produced naturally in the stratosphere. But this “good” ozone is gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform. These substances were formerly used and sometimes still are used in coolants, foaming agents, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides, and aerosol propellants. Once released into the air these ozone-depleting substances degrade very slowly. In fact, they can remain intact for years as they move through the troposphere until they reach the stratosphere. There they are broken down by the intensity of the sun’s UV rays and release chlorine and bromine molecules, which destroy the “good” ozone. Scientists estimate that one chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 “good” ozone molecules.
Even though we have reduced or eliminated the use of many ODSs, their use in the past can still affect the
protective ozone layer. Research indicates that depletion of the “good” ozone layer is being reduced worldwide. Thinning of the protective ozone layer can be observed using satellite measurements, particularly over the Polar Regions.
How Does the Depletion of “Good” Ozone Affect Human Health and the Environment?
Ozone depletion can cause increased amounts of UV radiation to reach the Earth which can lead to more cases of skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems. Overexposure to UV is believed to be contributing to the increase in melanoma, the most fatal of all skin cancers. Since 1990, the risk of developing melanoma has more than doubled.
UV can also damage sensitive crops, such as soybeans, and reduce crop yields. Some scientists suggest that marine phytoplankton, which are the base of the ocean food chain, are already under stress from UV radiation. This stress could have adverse consequences for human food supplies from the oceans.
What is Being Done About the Depletion of “Good” Ozone?
The United States, along with over 180 other countries, recognized the threats posed by ozone depletion and in 1987 adopted a treaty called the Montreal Protocol to phase out the production and use of ozone-depleting substances.
EPA has established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chemicals in the United States. Warning labels must be placed on all products containing CFCs or similar substances and nonessential uses of ozone-depleting products are prohibited. Releases into the air of refrigerants used in car and home air conditioning units and appliances are also prohibited. Some substitutes to ozone-depleting products have been produced and others are being developed. If the United States and other countries stop producing ozone-depleting substances, natural ozone production should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050.
What Causes “Bad” Ozone?
Ground-level or “bad” ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC.
At ground level, ozone is a harmful pollutant. Ozone pollution is a concern during the summer months because strong sunlight and hot weather result in harmful ozone concentrations in the air we
breathe. Many urban and suburban areas throughout the United States have high levels of “bad” ozone. But many rural areas of the country are also subject to high ozone levels as winds carry emissions hundreds of miles away from their original sources.
How Does “Bad” Ozone Affect Human Health and the Environment?
Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems including chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion. It can worsen bronchitis,
emphysema, and asthma. “Bad” ozone also can reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs. Repeated exposure may permanently scar lung tissue.
Healthy people also experience difficulty breathing when exposed to ozone pollution. Because ozone forms in hot weather, anyone who spends time outdoors in the summer may be affected, particularly children, outdoor workers and people exercising. Millions of Americans live in areas where the national ozone health standards are exceeded.
Ground-level or “bad” ozone also damages vegetation and ecosystems. It leads to reduced agricultural crop and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased susceptibility to diseases, pests and other stresses such as harsh weather. In the United States alone, ground-level ozone is responsible for an estimated $500 million in reduced crop production each year. Ground-level ozone also damages the foliage of trees and other plants, affecting the landscape of cities, national parks and forests, and recreation areas.
What is Being Done About “Bad” Ozone?
Under the Clean Air Act, EPA has set protective health-based standards for ozone in the air we breathe. EPA, states, and cities have instituted a variety of multi-faceted programs to meet these health-based standards. Throughout the country, additional programs are being put into place to cut NOx and VOC emissions from vehicles, industrial facilities, and electric utilities. Programs are also aimed at reducing pollution by reformulating fuels and consumer/commercial products, such as paints and chemical solvents, that contain VOC. Voluntary programs also encourage communities to adopt practices, such as carpooling, to reduce harmful emissions.
Industrial/ Commercial Processes
Sources of VOC