1. A clear and appropriate organizational structure must be used – The Guide for Good Transitions document on Blackboard is a great resource.
2. Preparation outline MUST be submitted at the same time as the video submission. – Failure to submit a full and complete preparation outline in the format described on Blackboard will result in a 20% penalty on the ENTIRE speech grade (i.e., TWO FULL LETTER GRADES). – The Formatting Outlines for Speeches handout on Blackboard shows the exact format.
3. At least FOUR legitimate, credible outside sources must be used and CITED ORALLY in the speech – The Source Citations Guide document on Blackboard is a great resource for figuring out how to cite sources orally – Place these in an APA-formatted list of References at the end of the preparation outline. The APA Style Guide document on Blackboard is a great resource for figuring out how to format References.
4. DO have a clear introduction and conclusion. DO establish the significance and relevance of what you are presenting. – Why should the audience listen to you? – What’s in it for us? DO use organizational tools like previews, transitions, and summaries. DO cite sources to support your claims. DO “dress for the speech”
5. Orally citing sources requires full information on a first citation: A. Who is being quoted or paraphrased? B. What are their credentials? C. From what specific publication or source is the information taken? D. What date was the information generated, published, or last updated? These details should come BEFORE the information you want to share from the source EXCEPT in the case of an attention-getting device (AGD)—then it should be embedded. Introducing sources should be done purposefully. This means using appropriate language based on the reason you introduce the source material. “According to…” is probably the most OVERUSED and LEAST MEANINGFUL way to introduce a source into your speech. The role the testimony is intended to play in your discussion is not clear. This is okay when that role is obvious AND you have not said, “According to…” too often. Otherwise, try to avoid this worn out phrase. Some alternatives* are: A, B, confirms in C, D, that blah, blah, blah… A, B, reports in C, D, that blah, blah, blah…. A, B, notes in C, D, that blah, blah, blah… A, B, explains in C, D, that blah, blah, blah… A, B, reveals in C, D, that blah, blah, blah… A, B, elaborates in C, D, that blah, blah, blah…. A, B, disagrees in C, D, where he/she argues/states/asserts/claims blah, blah… On the contrary, A, B, informs us in C, D, that blah, blah, blah… A, B, clarifies this point in C, D, by explaining blah, blah, blah…. In C D, A B suggests blah, blah, blah… In subsequent citations, you simply can say something like “The previously mentioned [INSERT SOURCE]…” OR “The aforementioned [INSERT SOURCE]…” or any other truncated citation that reminds us clearly of the earlier full citation. * A, B, C, D, reference the components in the list at the top of the page. Sample First Citations 1. Citing information from an expert who is quoted in a periodical: Dr. Joseph Lightfeather, director or the Chronobiology Research Institute at Harvard University, reveals in the May, 15, 2017, edition of Time that 2-4 p.m. are our least creative hours of the day. 2. Staff written information in an article in a periodical: Time magazine of May 15, 2017, confirms that 2-4 p.m. are our least creative hours of the day. 3. Book: However, MIT Biochronologist, Dr. Mary Wainwright suggests in her newly published book Body Beats that creative hours vary depending on each person’s unique body timer. OR However, Dr. Mary Wainright, a Biochronologist at MIT, suggests in her newly published book Body Beats, that creative hours vary depending on each person’s unique body timer. 4. Journal Article: Drs. Joseph Lightfeather and Mary Wainright found in their study of body rhythms— published in the Spring 2017 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association that our hours of creativity may vary somewhat from person to person, but most people are least creative between the afternoon hours of 2-4 p.m. 5. Web source: The official silly putty website, sillyputty.com (last updated in March 2015), reveals that silly putty acts both as a liquid and as a solid. 6. Interview: In a June 8, 2017, telephone conversation with peter Hodgson, Jr.—son of the man who popularized silly putty in the 1950s—he told me that his Dad built his business with a $120 loan from a friend, because the banks thought his idea was…well…s