Component 1: Thinking Making
Our personal and cultural values and identities are heavily
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Nature and culture are continually gaining strong relationship in the contemporary society. Attfield describes the body as the threshold which exists between nature and culture. The author describes the body as the link between the inner part of the individual and the society. The body, in this case, is alienated in such a way that it becomes an object. As such, the concepts of individualism, individuality and the subjectivity are attributed to the body. Therefore, the factors which affect the above aspect including the sexuality, gender, age and all the social relations are signified by the body. The relationship between an individual with the society is subject to the body. As such, there are various social formation and transformation which can be established through a relationship with one person to the other in the society.
According to Attfield, materialism is expressed through the interrelationship between one individual and the other. For example, the social aspects such as alienation, the mode of dressing, the application of the technology in both leisure and work are significant drivers to the social relationships between individuals. In the modern society, the body is regarded as the consuming body due to the related materialism(Attfield, 2000, P.238). As such, the author notes that the existence of the body links society or culture to the individual through consumption. The concept of the body as an object of use is regarded by the author as the embodiment. More so the author emphasizes that the body consumes with the desire as the individualism is about self-completion and also the separation (Attfield, 2000, P. 237).
The author successfully uses the body symbol of the materialism which exists in the society today. The body signifies the self-constructivism whereby the management of the relationship between the subject and the object is enabled. The material things are hence regarded as props which influence the relevant separation between an individual and others establish the practical sense of individuality. The material culture is established through the fashion creation in the social relationship between the individual and the society. Physical and psychological self-efficiency can be achieved through the confrontation of the mortality as well as countering the renunciation risk on the reliance on things. Sacrificing and overcoming the above risks is dependent on the fashion culture as the tool (Attfield, 2000, P. 238).
The body is described by the author as a complex entity rather than just a biological organ as described by the dictionary. According to sociology, the body is the center of focus in an individual, and as such, the unconscious embodiment is endowed than the physical embodiment (Attfield, 2000, p. 239). The culture is integrated into the individual through the taste, appearance and the demeanor. The study of material culture is oriented to the theories of consumption in recognition of the essentiality of the material things to the external part of the individual. The process of individualism is hence subject to the embodiment and the objectivity sense.
The embodiment is hence a concept of incorporation due to the connection symbolized through the inscription of the body instead of the use of language to translate the materialism in the society. The cultural factors are interpreted through bodily gestures and taste as the social denominator. The values of the body are hence relevant as they contribute to the transformation of taste as the culture of class to the nature of an individual (Attfield, 2000, p. 238). The consummate fashion is delineated as a kind of liberty (Moore, 2008, 213).
The consummate body leads to the interest in the craft as a form of luxury and unconscious discrimination in the society (Quan-dian, 2010, p. 3). The terms ‘hand-built’ and ‘craft has become part of the language of the advertisement and are hence gaining popularity in the contemporary society. Thinking making is associated with the cycle of exchange of goods in the capitalist society. Remarkably, the capitalist society is coined by the design of the products as it is the attribute which signifies uniqueness of the same brands of goods from different manufacturers (Bertell, 1971, p. 2). The design influences the production, which in return affects the circulation of the goods in the market. Circulation is anchored on the capacity of the consumers to acquire the goods according to the desired design and make.
Valuable things have close relationships with people. The capitalist society is characterized by people who value the durability of the circulating goods as well as the controllability. As such, the value of products is of great significance in the capitalist society. Value is however linked to the rarity of the commodity. For instance, jewelry primary signifies luxury (Shin 2002, p. 351). Therefore, people look for the rare jewelry such as the diamonds as they are valuable. Ownership of the jewelry is attributed to the act of acquisition which makes the users the consumers of the goods(Shin, 2002, p. 361). Moreover, the acquisition of the commodities is influenced by the use of money. The exchange complements the modern capitalist society.
Thinking Making has a different dimension, and each dimension is a characteristic of thinking making particularly in the contemporary society. Remarkably, during crafting, there is an essentiality of materials. The materials are manipulated to the preferred design through skills. Additionally, the execution of the skills is controlled by a certain process which is specific towards the achievement of the intended design. The play is also efficient as it makes the craftsmanship an interesting activity, hence drawing the passion and the relevant talents in creating the jewelry (Nakata, 2008, p. 172).
The history of thinking making is crowned by different features. Jewelry production has been in the field of art for a long period. Consequently, the traditional setup of the factories was different from the modern craft factories. The factories, studios and the workshop used in the traditional crafting were separated from the art factories, studios, and workshops. The separation of the art and craft has been costly, and there is a need for the reunification to prevent the delineation and the deskilling of the craftsmen (Bertell, 1971).
There have been changes however in the craft industry which revolves around design. There are different styles used in craft, including embodiment whereby, the designs are linked to touch and perception. Hepatic thinking making, for instance, is where materials are manipulated through a sense of touch and proprioception. More so, the craft is experiential learning. The learners require practicing various craft activities to gain the required knowledge. Reflection is the driving force towards the acquisition of knowledge in arts and crafts. Arts and crafts complement each other, and hence there is a significant requirement to unite the two to create outstanding designs particularly in jewelry (Dormer, 1997, P.18).
In craft, the work environment is quite significant. The mind and the body are subject to the work environment. The nature of the work environment is continually changing. Notably, the contemporary craft workshop has differences with the traditional studios and factories. Unlike the other industries where speed is highly valued in the revolution from one state to the other, slowness in art is fundamental. The artists require both time and control to create a unique design. The slow movement in the modern day work environment creates an opportunity for the craftsmen to discover their passion and the core skills in the craft. The relationship created between their empathy and material is essential in reskilling and thereby the discovery of the inner voice in the holistic space. There are various results from the slow movement of activities in the craft industry including; the elements which lead to inspiration. Material transformation and the lines of inquiry also develop from the connection between an individual and the materials in the workshop. In such an environment, the author of a given design is capacitated to create new uses of the material, contexts, and meanings (Dormer, 1997, P.18).
The play is a major driver of the craft and development of the new design. Notably, play increases the extent of cognitive development. More so, the play is associated with the intrinsic motivation which develops voluntarily due to the biological and the environmental influences. Furthermore, play creates enjoyment and the recreational pleasure and can hence occur at different points in an individual’s life. The play is also highly associated with culture and thereby important in the society. The play has various roles in the society, and hence it is a major part of human life. The play is significant is craft due to the manipulation of both body and brain skills, including essential features such as the eye coordination (Huizinga, 1938).
The modern society has shown interest in craftsmanship than ever in history. The craftsmanship is associated with the capitalist characteristics such as the career portfolio, flexible work environment as well as the cult of celebrity (Chan, 2007, p.168). The contemporary society is influenced by technology, which is a result of the digital age and also the language utilized particularly in the media. The economic and the social aspect of the society have been influenced by the craftsmanship and brands are shifting from ‘manufactured’ products to ‘craft.’
Ornaments are a primary part of craftsmanship which is consumed with the aim of standing out and looking attractive among the people in the society. The ornaments are also described as elements of decoration due to the associated characteristics of adornment and embellishment. The ornaments are highly linked to the individualism and the body by the sociology concept. The individualism has a significant role in both craft practices and jewelry. As such, the body is expressed as the linkage between the object and public as well as between the personal and the subjective world.
The body, craft, as well as skills, are interrelated. The body can translate the ideas into the sensual perception. When both the feelings and the ideas are transferred to the mind, an embodiment of the craftsmanship is established. The performance of the body in the world leads to its description as an object as it reflects the personal and intrinsic values creating a relationship between the individuals and the society. The complexity of the body establishes a relation between the identity of the owner of the body and the object, thereby creating a meaning of the social relationships. Notably, the body plays a significant role in communication. There are various senses, including the sense of touch, smell, movement, and more importantly, pleasure and embellishment senses are created through the body. While communicating the social aspect of an individual, the body does so through the adornment (Stewart, 1992, p.3). Therefore, ornaments and particularly the jewelry which signify luxury of an individual have timeless meaning to the individuals. Jewelry has been used to complement the body both traditionally and in the modern society.
Jewelry created a post-modernist relationship between the body, the mind, and the gender. Remarkably, the females are more attracted to the jewelry than the male members of the society(Bertens, 1995, P.2). As such jewelry designs and craftsmanship are oriented in drawing the women closer creating a relationship with their body. The concept of mind, on the other hand, is created by the perception of looking attractive through wearing jewelry on the women’s body. Physical and mental interaction is created by wearing the jewelry (Linderman 2011, p. 1). Notably, the mind is connected to the body, and the body hence influences the mind. The craft and arts are developed through perceiving the body as a subject and an object which can be transformed with time and at a given space (Fraylin, 1997, p.71).
The body in the modern society is represented somewhat differently from the traditional society. For instance, the integration of the technology in the globalized business threatens the demand for labor, especially due to the introduction of the robots. The robots, for instance, create love where work is made easier and at the same time, there is fear of the robots dispelling the humanity. The contemporary society has also been influenced by the design and architecture at its core. Modernism leads to the questioning of the positioning of the body as a subject. The body dismembering has been consistent in the modern society as characterized by the recent past prevalence (Attfield, 2000, P.241).
The social life today is oriented on the on clothing and human posture represented by the jewelry and design visibility respectively. The body, (human limb) has been used as a significant metaphor. For example, in the political aspect, the president is referred to as the head of the state. The metaphor is hence clear as the head belongs to the body and remarkably, the political aspect refers to the citizens as the body . Therefore the body metaphor is effective in different aspects other than sociology. As such, there is always a worry of appearance with the aim of safeguarding the public image. The worry converts the people leads to modification of the jewelry designs to create a model which fits the interest of the people.
The changes in the craft industry are implicated by the needs of the body. Historically, the craft was majorly done just for the image apart from the earlier focus solely on the image. Craft revival is experienced in the modern society. Ideally, craft revolves around Praxis which includes reflection, theory, and action of the skills which have been learned. Other important factors include the cohesiveness of the community, resilience, and the regeneration of acquired knowledge by enrolling into the education system and learning the execution of craftsmanship (Fraylin, 1997, P. 71).
Since the craft is oriented on the uniqueness, it hence becomes the antithesis of massive production. More so, the craft has different performance in the society according to the perception and the interests of different individuals. Craft creates the link between the body and the society. The role of craft in the society is hence diverse and attracts the resistance of accommodation by everyone especially through design modification (Turkle, 2011, p.2).
The society which is the body as presented by sociology acquires various benefits from the craft. Firstly, the craft is continuous, and hence it is anchored on the traditional thoughts and cultures pertaining craft. The enrichment of the knowledge leads to the creation of unique designs. Craft is also described in the post-modernity as revival due to the inclusiveness of the object which is the body, the philosophy, products (jewelry) and the design. Additionally, the craft has been passed from one generation to the other; the revival in the postmodern society includes the new present designs. There is room for continuous expansion of craft industry, especially with the growing concern of the crafted and hand-built items in the modern society (Besten, 2011, p. 1).
Media has great influence on the perception of products by the audience. The presentation of a product on media will either draw a positive or a negative influence on the people. The interest of the audience shifts from the manufactured products to the crafted ones due to the influence of the media (Fraylin, 1997, P. 68). The current interest in the jewelry is significant to the mental and physical connection of the human body. Using stereotypic advertisements, for instance, in advocating for crafted jewelry creates gender diversity in the jewelry choice and use. Females have been known to decorate their bodies using jewelry since the introduction of the jewelry in the ancient times. Women have continued the trend, creating an advantage to the craftsmanship industry.
Attfield’s description of the body as the connection between the individual and the culture has been demonstrated through the history of art and craft, its prevalence in the present day world and the expected continuous of the trend (Attfield, 2000, p. 180). The class system in the society is also revealed by the designs which make the jewelry unique and also unaffordable to some members of the society. For instance, women who belong to the high class can afford expensive jewelry for their bodies. As such, the appearance in the society is enhanced, and the connectivity between the physical and psychological aspects of an individual becomes significant (Dormer, 1997, P.18). More so, the choice of the rear jewelry is advantageous to the craftsmanship due to the creation of the new designs and anchoring them on the ancient designs. The uniqueness of a crafted product is the major aim of the craftsmanship.
Thinking making in craft is based on the body as both the object and the subject. The body links the inner part of the individual to the external environment. To achieve the self-satisfaction, there is an essentiality of creating a good working environment for the craftsmen. For instance, slow movement is important in the field as it creates and opportunity to connect the skills with passion and perception of both eyes and mind creating sustainable designs. The body is subjective and objective and can hence initiate the transformation and the formation of the desired designs of the products. Finally, the modern society is dependent on the advanced technology and most importantly the media. Therefore, the media has a great role in manipulating the choices of individuals towards crafted or hand-built products.