Week 4 Discussions

Week 4 Discussion 1

“Institutions” Please respond to the following:

· Based on the lecture and Webtext materials, address the following:

· Every country in the world is constructed around the same set of institutional frameworks that differ only in how governments manage them. Identify the specific components of an institution. Next, use two (2) examples of institutions —such as a financial system, a judicial system, or the armed forces — to illustrate what developing countries overall have done to weaken or strengthen such institutions.

Please also reply to the student

Joy Nwaneri

RE: Week 4 Discussion 1

Countries have same institutions frameworks only that their government of the structures varies.  The primary components of all institutions include formal laws, regulations, frameworks, informal customs, conventions, norms, and various types of resources. However, the elements may be different at different levels for instance in a financial institution which can have a firm, regional, and a global scale: at the firm level, it constitutes financial statements, revenue and accounting measures.

The financial and military systems (armed forces) would be good examples of institutions to look into in this case. North Korea, for instance, spends nearly a quarter of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the military (Chanlett-Avery et al. 333). The leader, Kim Jong-un, has always considered the nuclear program as a means of remaining in power and sustaining his regime even at the expense of the country’s economic development. The country’s military is weakened as the leader initiates various tests for his benefit and not for the country’s sake. Financial assistance from China funding the on-going missile programs in the country has been condemned by multiple officials and experts leaving the country struggling financially.

Reference:

Chanlett-Avery, Emma, and Ian E. Rinehart. “North Korea: US Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation. “Current Politics and Economics of Northern and Western Asia 23.3 (2014): 333.

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Week 4 Discussion 2

“Measuring Crime and Quality-of-Life Issues” Please respond to the following:

· Read the article titled “How Crime in the United States Is Measured”, you may also view the article at here (https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL34309.pdf). Next, compare and contrast the fundamental differences, strengths, and weaknesses among Uniform Crime Report, National Crime Victimization Survey, and the National Incident-Based Reporting System.

· Summarize the main forces that may contribute to possible civil disorder in your community. Next, propose the overall strategy for the local police/sheriff chief to prepare them on how to deal with these possible civil or violent demonstrations. Provide a rationale for your response.

Please also reply to the student

Dennis Johnson

RE: Week 4 Discussion 2

Read the article titled “How Crime in the United States Is Measured”, located here. You may also view the article at here. Next, compare and contrast the fundamental differences, strengths, and weaknesses among Uniform Crime Report, National Crime Victimization Survey, and the National Incident-Based Reporting System.

The ability to measure crimes throughout history is a difficult task and data is often incomplete.  There are many reasons why the data is not completely accurate some of those reasons include; not all crimes are reported, some victims report crimes that are not real, not all crimines are solved, and not all criminals are equal (some get caught easily and others have committed crime their entire life without every being caught).  These gray areas create a huge weakness in the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).  In addition, the UCR and NIBRS only reports certain crimes, they leave out drug crimes and federal offenses, which make up a good portion of crime today.  Finally, the UCR and NIBRS only report the most serious crime in a case.  For example, if a person is charged with robbery, kidnapping, and murder the murder is the only crime un the UCR; the kidnapping and robbery is overlooked.  This is a flaw in the Unites States UCR and NIBRS as other countries recognize multiple charges in a case.  Although these are all valuable tools used in law enforcement and statistics used for reference, they cannot be considered accurate or complete data.

The National Crime Victimization Survey is used to gather information from victims on crimes, particularly those not reported to law enforcement.  Again, this data is incomplete, at best.  A victim may or may not choose to participate in the survey, they may or may not fill the survey out properly, and they can report incidents that are not factual.  As the survey is voluntary and anonymous, this data can be difficult to work with.

Summarize the main forces that may contribute to possible civil disorder in your community. Next, propose the overall strategy for the local police/sheriff chief to prepare them on how to deal with these possible civil or violent demonstrations. Provide a rationale for your response.

I live in a smaller town and we really have limited disorder.  Usually, if there is civil disorder in the area it is due to disagreements and high tensions between law enforcement and the low-income areas.  This is often occurring when there are media stories about incidents in other locations; and is both due to the community’s lack of respect for law enforcement and law enforcements lack of relations in the community. I think that the best strategy for law enforcement in this area to follow is to get out in the community, befriend people, be a positive presence when possible, and remain fair in all interactions.  With time, the community will learn that law enforcement is on our side and everyone will be much better off (except maybe the criminals).