Why did the U.S. Congress select Chicago to host the 1893 Columbian Exposition?

Why did John Ruskin criticize James Whistler’s Impressionistic Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket?

 

Which earlier artist seems to have influenced Eakins in The Gross Clinic and The Agnew Clinic?

 

 In The Life Line, how does Winslow Homer present the female?

What was the title of the preparatory sketch for George Bellows’ Cliff Dwellers?

 

Why did the U.S. Congress select Chicago to host the 1893 Columbian Exposition?