Winter 2019 Assignment 1 Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Responses – ENVR-1000-D01 – Environmental Science 1 – Concepts

2019/1/29 Winter 2019 Assignment 1 Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Responses – ENVR-1000-D01 – Environmental Science 1 – Concepts
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Winter 2019 Assignment 1 Populaƭon Dynamics and
Ecosystem Responses
POPULATION DYNAMICS AND ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES
This assignment is worth 20% toward your ¡nal grade in the course. There are two parts to the as
(worth 15 marks) provides you with the opportunity to become familiar with basic concepts and t
with population growth and population interactions with the environment. In Part B (worth 20 ma
current issue in population dynamics through a case study of the Lesser Snow Goose of North Am
principles of population dynamics to understand the impacts on the structural and functional asp
ecosystem.
In particular, by completing the assignment you will:
demonstrate knowledge of population dynamics by reviewing concepts and examining grow
understand the changes that arise in population size in response to changes in birth rate an
apply basic concepts regarding population dynamics to a case study of snow goose popula
America; and
describe the abiotic and biotic changes in an ecosystem as a response to population growt
In completing the assignment, be sure to provide reference sources for your information to avoid
standard citation system as described in the following:
http://umanitoba.ca/student/resource/student_advocacy/cheating_plagiarism_fraud.html
https://libguides.lib.umanitoba.ca/biology/citinghelp
Part A. Population Growth Dynamics (15 marks)
ENVR 1000
A ssignment 1
ENVR-1000-D01 – Environmental Science 1 – Conc…
2019/1/29 Winter 2019 Assignment 1 Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Responses – ENVR-1000-D01 – Environmental Science 1 – Concepts
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Before beginning assignment 1, read the relevant sections from your textbook (pages 68 to 73) an
information available at Otherwise.com (http://www.otherwise.com/population/index.html). You s
Snow Geese in Peril video available at the following link: Snow Geese in Peril. Please note that if y
unable to run the applets/simulations available at (Otherwise.com), refer to the appendix at the en
that displays this output for each of the exercises described at the website. Review the appendix w
the various experiments described at the website.
Based on your readings and research, answer the following:
1. Draw graphs to illustrate the relationship between time and population size for each of (i) ex
(ii) logistic growth patterns. Identify the following phases on the appropriate graph(s) (4 ma
a. lag phase
b. exponential phase
c. stationary phase/carrying capacity
How are these growth patterns similar and how do they differ? (1 mark)
2. Outline the environmental conditions that are required for populations to achieve exponenti
patterns. Based on this, which of the two growth patterns do you believe is most realistic in
environment? Why? (3 marks)
3. What happens when populations are not regulated in their environment? Answer this by dra
curves in question 1. once again and include the outcome(s) of unregulated growth and the
your graph. (2 marks)
4. Examine the simulations available at Otherwise.com (also available in appendix at the end o
see how birth rate overall in¢uences population growth patterns. Based on your review, brie
birth/growth rate (e.g., slow growing vs. rapidly growing) in¢uences overall patterns of expo
growth. Which of these birth rates is most sustainable and why? (5 marks)
Part B. Lesser Snow Goose Population (20 marks)
If you have not already done so, watch the Ducks Unlimited production Snow Geese in Peril.
Snow Geese in Peril ©1998. Ducks Unlimited, Inc. All rights reserved. No alteration, duplication or
permitted without authorization. Reproduced with permission from Ducks Unlimited, Inc.
Based on your independent research and the Snow Geese in Peril video, answer the following:
5. Outline the features of the two major ecosystems used by snow geese during their annual m
how each of these ecosystems affects the carrying capacity and growth rate for the North A
overall. Is this a human driven problem or a natural phenomenon? Justify your answer.(5 ma
6. Surveys by the Canadian Wildlife Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have been co
early 1940s. Information for the snow goose midwinter population in the Southern U.S. is av
below.
2019/1/29 Winter 2019 Assignment 1 Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Responses – ENVR-1000-D01 – Environmental Science 1 – Concepts
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Table 1: Number of lesser snow geese surveyed in mid-continental U.S dur
Taken from North American Migratory Bird Survey Data.

Year Number of Birds
(thousands)
Year Number of Bir
(thousands)
1941 400 1993 2200
1945 450 1996 2700
1948 600 2000 3200
1958 750 2003 3200
1960 750 2005 2900
1962 680 2008 2700
1965 750 2010 3050
1969 800 2011 3200
1975 1600 2012 3250
1981 1750 2013 4350
1984 1900 2014 5500

d
Use graph paper or Excel and graph the relationship of lesser snow goose population estimates o
provided in Table 1. Connect the individual values and label your graph with the key features of the
described in Part A above (e.g., lag phase, exponential phase, stationary phase/carrying capacity)
do you observe in the snow geese population over time? Do you ¡nd evidence of possible populat
population dieback/crash as has been projected in the video? Justify your answer. (10 marks)
7. Lastly, given the problem of an exploding population of Lesser snow geese, how can Society
issue and protect the Arctic ecosystem in the future?
2019/1/29 Winter 2019 Assignment 1 Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Responses – ENVR-1000-D01 – Environmental Science 1 – Concepts
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p y
(5 marks)
Resource and References
Simulation models:
Otherwise.com – http://www.otherwise.com/population/index.html
Video – Snow Geese in Peril
Lesser Snow Geese – https://alaska.usgs.gov/science/biology/avian_in¢uenza/species/species.p
Light Goose Dilemma – http://www.ducks.org/conservation/national/light-goose-dilemma
Arctic Ecosystems in Peril – https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/8421098
Appendix (Output from exponential and logistic growth simulations availab
Exponential Growth
Experiment 1: Exponential growth simulation by varying birth rate (# of offspring) as follows: birt
birth rate of 1.4 (blue), and birth rate of 2.0 (green).
Taken from Otherwise.com (http://www.otherwise.com/population/exponent.html)
Experiment 2: Exponential growth simulation using an initial birth rate of 1.5 which is changed to
2019/1/29 Winter 2019 Assignment 1 Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Responses – ENVR-1000-D01 – Environmental Science 1 – Concepts
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Taken from Otherwise.com (http://www.otherwise.com/population/exponent.html)
Logistic Growth
Experiment 1: Logistic growth simulations using a constant birth rate of 1.5 individuals and varyi
follows: 200 (red); 400 (royal blue); 800 (light green); and 1000 (light blue).
Taken from Otherwise.com (http://www.otherwise.com/population/logistic.html)
Experiment 2, 3 and 4: Logistic growth simulations using a constant carrying capacity of 1000 in
rates of 1.2 (red), 1.8 (royal blue), 3.0 (green), and 5.0 (light blue)
Taken from Otherwise.com (http://www.otherwise.com/population/logistic.html)
top Copyright © 2014.Updated 2017.
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