Positive Pressure Ventilation: Effects on Oxygenation and Ventilation
Positive pressure ventilation is basic mechanical ventilation that is used to enhance the oxygenation process through the alveoli. In the processes of oxygenation and ventilation, there is an inspiration of oxygen concentration and gases that pass through the arterial blood vessels. Positive pressure ventilation leads to compliance with highly sustained pressure from the surface of the lungs (Soni & Williams, 2008). In the event of excess positive pressure ventilation, there are high chances of lung injury and Biotrauma. The effects result in physiologic and pathophysiologic implications to the patient. According to Raymondos (2012), when a patient experiences lung injury or respiratory organ failure, he or she may experience insufficient maintenance of lung volume. Consequently, positive pressure ventilation on oxygenation and ventilation can be used to counter the health care issue and improve the well-being of the patient.
Define the Following Terms and Explain Their Significance
Peak inspiratory Pressure (PIP) is the highest proximal airway pressure in the lungs that is achieved during an inspiration. Peak inspiratory Pressure is essential because it depicts the worsening condition of the patient as well as the need to replace equipment that supports respiratory.
Plateau pressure (Pplat) is the amount of pressure, which is applied using a mechanical ventilator to the small alveoli and airways. The measurement is significant because it determines a single breath using the results of tidal volumes.
Airway resistance (Raw) is the amount pressure used to generate a specific flow rate with a velocity of 1L/sec. According to Kaminsky (2012), the measurement is used to differentiate asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Dynamic Compliance (Cdyn) is the change in lung volume per unit. The evaluation of Dynamic Compliance (Cdyn) is continuous and determined at every point to represent the schematic changes experienced in rhythmic breathing (Desai & Moustarah, 2019). The measurement is significant because it monitors the elastic and airway resistance.
Static Compliance (Cstat) gives pulmonary compliance at a given fixed volume with no flow of air and relaxed muscles. The compliance measures elastic resistance of pressure in the lungs (Desai & Moustarah, 2019). Compliance measurement plays a significant role in choosing the right and effective therapeutic intervention for ventilation management.
Definition of Each of the Ventilator Modes
Continuous Mandatory Ventilation involves the presentation of breaths at different intervals based on set variables. The ventilation process can be presented by a patient or through a mechanical method.
Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation is a method that enables the patient to have additional breathing in the process of mechanical intake of air. Through this type of ventilation, a patient synchronizes the delivery process
Pressure Support Ventilation is a ventilator management technique, which is used in the events of the invasive and non-invasive ventilation process. The method involves triggering the patient to facilitate control of breathing. In medical facilities, Pressure Support Ventilation is commonly used because healthcare practitioners are able to develop a closed circuit between the patient’s alveoli in the lungs and the mechanical ventilator.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is a positive pressure that is used to maintain the interrupted flow of airflow when a person is breathing unexpectedly. Besides, the pressure helps to maintain a given amount of airways during inspiration and expiration of the respiratory cycle.
Desai, J. P., & Moustarah, F. (2019). Pulmonary Compliance. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing.
Kaminsky, D. A. (2012). What Does Airway Resistance Tell Us About Lung Function? Respiratory care , 57 (1), 85–96.
Raymondos, K., Molitoris, U., Capewell, M., Dieck, T., Weilbach, C., & Corrado, A. (2012). Negative- versus positive-pressure ventilation in intubated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Critical Care , 16 (R37).
Soni, N., & Williams, P. (2008). Positive pressure ventilation: what is the real cost? BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia , 101 (4), 446–457.